Snake Species: Black and White Racer

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Snake Species: Black and White Racer
Antillophis andreae peninsulae

SCHWARTZ and THOMAS 1960

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Higher Taxa Colubridae (Dipsadinae), Alsophiini, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)

Subspecies Caraiba andreae andreae (REINHARDT and LÜTKEN 1862)
Caraiba andreae melopyrrha (THOMAS and GARRIDO 1967)
Caraiba andreae morenoi (GARRIDO 1973)
Caraiba andreae nebulatus (BARBOUR 1916)
Caraiba andreae orientalis (BARBOUR and RAMSDEN 1919)
Caraiba andreae peninsulae (SCHWARTZ and THOMAS 1960)

Common Names BLACK AND WHITE RACER

Synonym Liophis andreae REINHARDT & LÜTKEN 1862: 214
Dromicus cubensis GARMAN 1887: 281
Leimadophis andreae andreae — SCHWARTZ & OGREN 1956
Dromicus andreae — THOMAS and GARRIDO 1967
Antillophis andreai — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 579
Antillophis andreae — KUNZ 2005
Caraiba andreae — ZAHER et al. 2009
Caraiba andreae — HEDGES et al. 2009
Antillophis andreae — GRAZZIOTIN et al. 2012 (by implication)
Caraiba andreai — RODRIGUEZ-SCHETTINO et al. 2013
Caraiba andreae — WALLACH et al. 2014: 148

Caraiba andreae andreae (REINHARDT and LÜTKEN 1862)
Antillophis andreai andreai — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 579
Caraiba andreae andreae — HEDGES et al. 2009

Caraiba andreae melopyrrha (THOMAS and GARRIDO 1967)
Antillophis andreai melopyrrha — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 579
Caraiba andreae melopyrrha — HEDGES et al. 2009

Caraiba andreae morenoi (GARRIDO 1973)
Antillophis andreai morenoi — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 579
Caraiba andreae morenoi — HEDGES et al. 2009

Caraiba andreae nebulatus (BARBOUR 1916)
Antillophis andreai nebulatus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 579
Caraiba andreae nebulatus — HEDGES et al. 2009

Caraiba andreae orientalis (BARBOUR and RAMSDEN 1919)
Antillophis andreai orientalis — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 579
Caraiba andreae orientalis — HEDGES et al. 2009

Caraiba andreae peninsulae (SCHWARTZ and THOMAS 1960)
Antillophis andreai peninsulae — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 579
Caraiba andreae peninsulae — HEDGES et al. 2009

Distribution Cuba, Isla de la Juventud

andreai: western and central Cuba to extreme northwestern Camagüey Prov.; intergrades with A. a. orientalis. Type locality: Cuba.

melopyrrha: Cayo Cantiles.

morenoi: Cayo Santa Maria, Cayo Guajaba.

nebulatus: Isla de la Juventud.

orientalis: western Cuba.

peninsulae: Peninsula de Guanahacabibes, Pinar del Rio Province.

Reproduction oviparous

Types Syntypes: ZMUC = UZM R.60766-R.60767
Holotype: IZ 1080 [melopyrrha]
Holotype: IZ 2737 [morenoi]
Holotype: MCZ 11092 [nebulatus]
Holotype: MCZ 11726 [orientalis]
Holotype: AMNH 83235 [peninsulae]

Type species: Liophis andreae REINHARDT and LÜTKEN 1862 is the type species of the genus Caraiba ZAHER et al. 2009.

Diagnosis (genus): The species in this genus has 17 midbody scale rows, 131–157 ventrals, 90–120 subcaudals, 1 apical scale pit, 8 upper labials, 9 lower labials, 20–23 total maxillary teeth, and 25–28 dentary teeth (Table 2). Caraiba differs in at least one of these characters from all other alsophiine genera except Hypsirhynchus. From that genus it differs in having a hemipene with enlarged papillate body calyces in the basal region and medial surface of the lobes (Zaher 1999).

References Alfonso, Yasel U.; Katherine Pellicier Lopez and Diego Armijos-Ojeda 2013. Endemic frog predation by the Cuban lesser racer, Caraiba andreae (Squamata: Dipsadidae), on La Melba, Alexander Von Humboldt National Park, eastern Cuba. Herpetology Notes 6: 91-93
Barbour, T. 1916. The reptiles and amphibians of the Isle of Pines. Annals of the Carnegie Museum 10 (1-2): 297-308.
Barbour, T. and C. T. Ramsden. 1919. The herpetology of Cuba. Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., Harvard Coll. 47: 69-213.
Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA
Garman, S. 1887. On West Indian reptiles in the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Cambridge, Mass. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 24: 278-286.
Garrido, O.H. 1973. Nuevas subespecies de reptiles para Cuba. Torreia, n.s. 30:1-31.
Grazziotin, Felipe G.; Hussam Zaher, Robert W. Murphy, Gustavo Scrocchi, Marco A. Benavides, Ya-Ping Zhang and Sandro L. Bonatto 2012. Molecular phylogeny of the New World Dipsadidae (Serpentes: Colubroidea): a reappraisal. Cladistics DOI: 10.1111/j.1096-0031.2012.00393.x
Hedges, S. Blair; Arnaud Couloux; Vidal, Nicolas 2009. Molecular phylogeny, classification, and biogeography of West Indian racer snakes of the Tribe Alsophiini (Squamata, Dipsadidae, Xenodontinae). Zootaxa 2067: 1-28
Kunz, K. 2005. Photogenic herpetofauna. Notes on Cuban Synanthropic species. Reptilia (GB) (43): 47-53
Petzold, H.G. 1969. Zur Haltung and Fortpflanzungsbiologieeiniger kubanischer Schlangen im Tierpark Berlin. Salamandra 5:124-40.
Reinhardt, JOHANNES & CHRISTIAN FREDERIK LÜTKEN 1862. Bidrag tii det vestindiske Öriges og navnligen tii de dansk-vestindiske Oers Herpetologie. Vidensk. Meddel. Naturhist. For. Kjöbenhavn (10-18): 153-291 [1862]
Rodríguez Schettino, Lourdes, Carlos A. Mancina & Vilma Rivalta González 2013. REPTILES OF CUBA: CHECKLIST AND GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS. Smithsonian Herp. Inf. Serv. (144): 1-96
Schwartz, A. and Henderson, R.W. 1985. A guide to the identification of the amphibians and reptiles of the West Indies exclusive of Hispaniola. Milwaukee Public Mus., 165 pp.
Schwartz, A. and Thomas, R. 1960. Four new snakes (Tropidophis, Dromicus, Alsophis) from the Isla de Pinos and Cuba. Herpetologica 16 (2): 73-90.
Schwartz,A. & Henderson,R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
Thomas, R. and Garrido, O.H. 1967. A new subspecies of Dromicus andreae (Serpentes, Colubridae). Annals of the Carnegie Museum 39 (16): 219-26.
Vogel, Z. 1965. Herpetologische Beobachtungen auf Kuba (III). Aquar. und Terrar. 12 (10): 340-43.

Image
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Iolo technologies, LLC
 

**NB. Photos used are for educational purposes. No photos are mine. If you own one of them and would like it removed please message me.

Snake Species: Black and White Racer

Little Scorpions participates in affiliate programs and accepts advertising from various companies. This may contain links to those companies’ websites. I receive a small commission, (Which helps pay for this website), if you make a purchase using one of those links. At no extra cost to you.

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Snake Species: Black and White Racer
Antillophis andreae orientalis

BARBOUR and RAMSDEN 1919

snake 10 no kill
Most snake bites happen when people try to catch or kill snakes

Higher Taxa Colubridae (Dipsadinae), Alsophiini, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)

Subspecies Caraiba andreae andreae (REINHARDT and LÜTKEN 1862)
Caraiba andreae melopyrrha (THOMAS and GARRIDO 1967)
Caraiba andreae morenoi (GARRIDO 1973)
Caraiba andreae nebulatus (BARBOUR 1916)
Caraiba andreae orientalis (BARBOUR and RAMSDEN 1919)
Caraiba andreae peninsulae (SCHWARTZ and THOMAS 1960)

Common Names BLACK AND WHITE RACER

Synonym Liophis andreae REINHARDT & LÜTKEN 1862: 214
Dromicus cubensis GARMAN 1887: 281
Leimadophis andreae andreae — SCHWARTZ & OGREN 1956
Dromicus andreae — THOMAS and GARRIDO 1967
Antillophis andreai — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 579
Antillophis andreae — KUNZ 2005
Caraiba andreae — ZAHER et al. 2009
Caraiba andreae — HEDGES et al. 2009
Antillophis andreae — GRAZZIOTIN et al. 2012 (by implication)
Caraiba andreai — RODRIGUEZ-SCHETTINO et al. 2013
Caraiba andreae — WALLACH et al. 2014: 148

Caraiba andreae andreae (REINHARDT and LÜTKEN 1862)
Antillophis andreai andreai — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 579
Caraiba andreae andreae — HEDGES et al. 2009

Caraiba andreae melopyrrha (THOMAS and GARRIDO 1967)
Antillophis andreai melopyrrha — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 579
Caraiba andreae melopyrrha — HEDGES et al. 2009

Caraiba andreae morenoi (GARRIDO 1973)
Antillophis andreai morenoi — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 579
Caraiba andreae morenoi — HEDGES et al. 2009

Caraiba andreae nebulatus (BARBOUR 1916)
Antillophis andreai nebulatus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 579
Caraiba andreae nebulatus — HEDGES et al. 2009

Caraiba andreae orientalis (BARBOUR and RAMSDEN 1919)
Antillophis andreai orientalis — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 579
Caraiba andreae orientalis — HEDGES et al. 2009

Caraiba andreae peninsulae (SCHWARTZ and THOMAS 1960)
Antillophis andreai peninsulae — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 579
Caraiba andreae peninsulae — HEDGES et al. 2009

Distribution Cuba, Isla de la Juventud

andreai: western and central Cuba to extreme northwestern Camagüey Prov.; intergrades with A. a. orientalis. Type locality: Cuba.

melopyrrha: Cayo Cantiles.

morenoi: Cayo Santa Maria, Cayo Guajaba.

nebulatus: Isla de la Juventud.

orientalis: western Cuba.

peninsulae: Peninsula de Guanahacabibes, Pinar del Rio Province.

Reproduction oviparous

Types Syntypes: ZMUC = UZM R.60766-R.60767
Holotype: IZ 1080 [melopyrrha]
Holotype: IZ 2737 [morenoi]
Holotype: MCZ 11092 [nebulatus]
Holotype: MCZ 11726 [orientalis]
Holotype: AMNH 83235 [peninsulae]

Type species: Liophis andreae REINHARDT and LÜTKEN 1862 is the type species of the genus Caraiba ZAHER et al. 2009.

Diagnosis (genus): The species in this genus has 17 midbody scale rows, 131–157 ventrals, 90–120 subcaudals, 1 apical scale pit, 8 upper labials, 9 lower labials, 20–23 total maxillary teeth, and 25–28 dentary teeth (Table 2). Caraiba differs in at least one of these characters from all other alsophiine genera except Hypsirhynchus. From that genus it differs in having a hemipene with enlarged papillate body calyces in the basal region and medial surface of the lobes (Zaher 1999).

References Alfonso, Yasel U.; Katherine Pellicier Lopez and Diego Armijos-Ojeda 2013. Endemic frog predation by the Cuban lesser racer, Caraiba andreae (Squamata: Dipsadidae), on La Melba, Alexander Von Humboldt National Park, eastern Cuba. Herpetology Notes 6: 91-93
Barbour, T. 1916. The reptiles and amphibians of the Isle of Pines. Annals of the Carnegie Museum 10 (1-2): 297-308.
Barbour, T. and C. T. Ramsden. 1919. The herpetology of Cuba. Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., Harvard Coll. 47: 69-213.
Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA
Garman, S. 1887. On West Indian reptiles in the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Cambridge, Mass. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 24: 278-286.
Garrido, O.H. 1973. Nuevas subespecies de reptiles para Cuba. Torreia, n.s. 30:1-31.
Grazziotin, Felipe G.; Hussam Zaher, Robert W. Murphy, Gustavo Scrocchi, Marco A. Benavides, Ya-Ping Zhang and Sandro L. Bonatto 2012. Molecular phylogeny of the New World Dipsadidae (Serpentes: Colubroidea): a reappraisal. Cladistics DOI: 10.1111/j.1096-0031.2012.00393.x
Hedges, S. Blair; Arnaud Couloux; Vidal, Nicolas 2009. Molecular phylogeny, classification, and biogeography of West Indian racer snakes of the Tribe Alsophiini (Squamata, Dipsadidae, Xenodontinae). Zootaxa 2067: 1-28
Kunz, K. 2005. Photogenic herpetofauna. Notes on Cuban Synanthropic species. Reptilia (GB) (43): 47-53
Petzold, H.G. 1969. Zur Haltung and Fortpflanzungsbiologieeiniger kubanischer Schlangen im Tierpark Berlin. Salamandra 5:124-40.
Reinhardt, JOHANNES & CHRISTIAN FREDERIK LÜTKEN 1862. Bidrag tii det vestindiske Öriges og navnligen tii de dansk-vestindiske Oers Herpetologie. Vidensk. Meddel. Naturhist. For. Kjöbenhavn (10-18): 153-291 [1862]
Rodríguez Schettino, Lourdes, Carlos A. Mancina & Vilma Rivalta González 2013. REPTILES OF CUBA: CHECKLIST AND GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS. Smithsonian Herp. Inf. Serv. (144): 1-96
Schwartz, A. and Henderson, R.W. 1985. A guide to the identification of the amphibians and reptiles of the West Indies exclusive of Hispaniola. Milwaukee Public Mus., 165 pp.
Schwartz, A. and Thomas, R. 1960. Four new snakes (Tropidophis, Dromicus, Alsophis) from the Isla de Pinos and Cuba. Herpetologica 16 (2): 73-90.
Schwartz,A. & Henderson,R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
Thomas, R. and Garrido, O.H. 1967. A new subspecies of Dromicus andreae (Serpentes, Colubridae). Annals of the Carnegie Museum 39 (16): 219-26.
Vogel, Z. 1965. Herpetologische Beobachtungen auf Kuba (III). Aquar. und Terrar. 12 (10): 340-43.

Image
Little scorpion.com

Iolo technologies, LLC
 

**NB. Photos used are for educational purposes. No photos are mine. If you own one of them and would like it removed please message me.

Snake Species: Black and White Racer

Little Scorpions participates in affiliate programs and accepts advertising from various companies. This may contain links to those companies’ websites. I receive a small commission, (Which helps pay for this website), if you make a purchase using one of those links. At no extra cost to you.

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Snake Species: Black and White Racer
Antillophis andreae nebulatus

BARBOUR 1916

snakes 9 what's the difference
They are all living creatures

Higher Taxa Colubridae (Dipsadinae), Alsophiini, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)

Subspecies Caraiba andreae andreae (REINHARDT and LÜTKEN 1862)
Caraiba andreae melopyrrha (THOMAS and GARRIDO 1967)
Caraiba andreae morenoi (GARRIDO 1973)
Caraiba andreae nebulatus (BARBOUR 1916)
Caraiba andreae orientalis (BARBOUR and RAMSDEN 1919)
Caraiba andreae peninsulae (SCHWARTZ and THOMAS 1960)

Common Names BLACK AND WHITE RACER

Synonym Liophis andreae REINHARDT & LÜTKEN 1862: 214
Dromicus cubensis GARMAN 1887: 281
Leimadophis andreae andreae — SCHWARTZ & OGREN 1956
Dromicus andreae — THOMAS and GARRIDO 1967
Antillophis andreai — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 579
Antillophis andreae — KUNZ 2005
Caraiba andreae — ZAHER et al. 2009
Caraiba andreae — HEDGES et al. 2009
Antillophis andreae — GRAZZIOTIN et al. 2012 (by implication)
Caraiba andreai — RODRIGUEZ-SCHETTINO et al. 2013
Caraiba andreae — WALLACH et al. 2014: 148

Caraiba andreae andreae (REINHARDT and LÜTKEN 1862)
Antillophis andreai andreai — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 579
Caraiba andreae andreae — HEDGES et al. 2009

Caraiba andreae melopyrrha (THOMAS and GARRIDO 1967)
Antillophis andreai melopyrrha — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 579
Caraiba andreae melopyrrha — HEDGES et al. 2009

Caraiba andreae morenoi (GARRIDO 1973)
Antillophis andreai morenoi — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 579
Caraiba andreae morenoi — HEDGES et al. 2009

Caraiba andreae nebulatus (BARBOUR 1916)
Antillophis andreai nebulatus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 579
Caraiba andreae nebulatus — HEDGES et al. 2009

Caraiba andreae orientalis (BARBOUR and RAMSDEN 1919)
Antillophis andreai orientalis — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 579
Caraiba andreae orientalis — HEDGES et al. 2009

Caraiba andreae peninsulae (SCHWARTZ and THOMAS 1960)
Antillophis andreai peninsulae — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 579
Caraiba andreae peninsulae — HEDGES et al. 2009

Distribution Cuba, Isla de la Juventud

andreai: western and central Cuba to extreme northwestern Camagüey Prov.; intergrades with A. a. orientalis. Type locality: Cuba.

melopyrrha: Cayo Cantiles.

morenoi: Cayo Santa Maria, Cayo Guajaba.

nebulatus: Isla de la Juventud.

orientalis: western Cuba.

peninsulae: Peninsula de Guanahacabibes, Pinar del Rio Province.

Reproduction oviparous

Types Syntypes: ZMUC = UZM R.60766-R.60767
Holotype: IZ 1080 [melopyrrha]
Holotype: IZ 2737 [morenoi]
Holotype: MCZ 11092 [nebulatus]
Holotype: MCZ 11726 [orientalis]
Holotype: AMNH 83235 [peninsulae]

Type species: Liophis andreae REINHARDT and LÜTKEN 1862 is the type species of the genus Caraiba ZAHER et al. 2009.

Diagnosis (genus): The species in this genus has 17 midbody scale rows, 131–157 ventrals, 90–120 subcaudals, 1 apical scale pit, 8 upper labials, 9 lower labials, 20–23 total maxillary teeth, and 25–28 dentary teeth (Table 2). Caraiba differs in at least one of these characters from all other alsophiine genera except Hypsirhynchus. From that genus it differs in having a hemipene with enlarged papillate body calyces in the basal region and medial surface of the lobes (Zaher 1999).

References Alfonso, Yasel U.; Katherine Pellicier Lopez and Diego Armijos-Ojeda 2013. Endemic frog predation by the Cuban lesser racer, Caraiba andreae (Squamata: Dipsadidae), on La Melba, Alexander Von Humboldt National Park, eastern Cuba. Herpetology Notes 6: 91-93
Barbour, T. 1916. The reptiles and amphibians of the Isle of Pines. Annals of the Carnegie Museum 10 (1-2): 297-308.
Barbour, T. and C. T. Ramsden. 1919. The herpetology of Cuba. Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., Harvard Coll. 47: 69-213.
Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA
Garman, S. 1887. On West Indian reptiles in the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Cambridge, Mass. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 24: 278-286.
Garrido, O.H. 1973. Nuevas subespecies de reptiles para Cuba. Torreia, n.s. 30:1-31.
Grazziotin, Felipe G.; Hussam Zaher, Robert W. Murphy, Gustavo Scrocchi, Marco A. Benavides, Ya-Ping Zhang and Sandro L. Bonatto 2012. Molecular phylogeny of the New World Dipsadidae (Serpentes: Colubroidea): a reappraisal. Cladistics DOI: 10.1111/j.1096-0031.2012.00393.x
Hedges, S. Blair; Arnaud Couloux; Vidal, Nicolas 2009. Molecular phylogeny, classification, and biogeography of West Indian racer snakes of the Tribe Alsophiini (Squamata, Dipsadidae, Xenodontinae). Zootaxa 2067: 1-28
Kunz, K. 2005. Photogenic herpetofauna. Notes on Cuban Synanthropic species. Reptilia (GB) (43): 47-53
Petzold, H.G. 1969. Zur Haltung and Fortpflanzungsbiologieeiniger kubanischer Schlangen im Tierpark Berlin. Salamandra 5:124-40.
Reinhardt, JOHANNES & CHRISTIAN FREDERIK LÜTKEN 1862. Bidrag tii det vestindiske Öriges og navnligen tii de dansk-vestindiske Oers Herpetologie. Vidensk. Meddel. Naturhist. For. Kjöbenhavn (10-18): 153-291 [1862]
Rodríguez Schettino, Lourdes, Carlos A. Mancina & Vilma Rivalta González 2013. REPTILES OF CUBA: CHECKLIST AND GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS. Smithsonian Herp. Inf. Serv. (144): 1-96
Schwartz, A. and Henderson, R.W. 1985. A guide to the identification of the amphibians and reptiles of the West Indies exclusive of Hispaniola. Milwaukee Public Mus., 165 pp.
Schwartz, A. and Thomas, R. 1960. Four new snakes (Tropidophis, Dromicus, Alsophis) from the Isla de Pinos and Cuba. Herpetologica 16 (2): 73-90.
Schwartz,A. & Henderson,R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
Thomas, R. and Garrido, O.H. 1967. A new subspecies of Dromicus andreae (Serpentes, Colubridae). Annals of the Carnegie Museum 39 (16): 219-26.
Vogel, Z. 1965. Herpetologische Beobachtungen auf Kuba (III). Aquar. und Terrar. 12 (10): 340-43.

Image
Little scorpion.com

Iolo technologies, LLC
 

**NB. Photos used are for educational purposes. No photos are mine. If you own one of them and would like it removed please message me.

Snake Species: Black and White Racer

Little Scorpions participates in affiliate programs and accepts advertising from various companies. This may contain links to those companies’ websites. I receive a small commission, (Which helps pay for this website), if you make a purchase using one of those links. At no extra cost to you.
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Snake Species: Black and White Racer
Antillophis andreae morenoi

GARRIDO 1973

snake 9 bites
A comparison

Higher Taxa Colubridae (Dipsadinae), Alsophiini, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)

Subspecies Caraiba andreae andreae (REINHARDT and LÜTKEN 1862)
Caraiba andreae melopyrrha (THOMAS and GARRIDO 1967)
Caraiba andreae morenoi (GARRIDO 1973)
Caraiba andreae nebulatus (BARBOUR 1916)
Caraiba andreae orientalis (BARBOUR and RAMSDEN 1919)
Caraiba andreae peninsulae (SCHWARTZ and THOMAS 1960)

Common Names BLACK AND WHITE RACER

Synonym Liophis andreae REINHARDT & LÜTKEN 1862: 214
Dromicus cubensis GARMAN 1887: 281
Leimadophis andreae andreae — SCHWARTZ & OGREN 1956
Dromicus andreae — THOMAS and GARRIDO 1967
Antillophis andreai — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 579
Antillophis andreae — KUNZ 2005
Caraiba andreae — ZAHER et al. 2009
Caraiba andreae — HEDGES et al. 2009
Antillophis andreae — GRAZZIOTIN et al. 2012 (by implication)
Caraiba andreai — RODRIGUEZ-SCHETTINO et al. 2013
Caraiba andreae — WALLACH et al. 2014: 148

Caraiba andreae andreae (REINHARDT and LÜTKEN 1862)
Antillophis andreai andreai — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 579
Caraiba andreae andreae — HEDGES et al. 2009

Caraiba andreae melopyrrha (THOMAS and GARRIDO 1967)
Antillophis andreai melopyrrha — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 579
Caraiba andreae melopyrrha — HEDGES et al. 2009

Caraiba andreae morenoi (GARRIDO 1973)
Antillophis andreai morenoi — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 579
Caraiba andreae morenoi — HEDGES et al. 2009

Caraiba andreae nebulatus (BARBOUR 1916)
Antillophis andreai nebulatus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 579
Caraiba andreae nebulatus — HEDGES et al. 2009

Caraiba andreae orientalis (BARBOUR and RAMSDEN 1919)
Antillophis andreai orientalis — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 579
Caraiba andreae orientalis — HEDGES et al. 2009

Caraiba andreae peninsulae (SCHWARTZ and THOMAS 1960)
Antillophis andreai peninsulae — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 579
Caraiba andreae peninsulae — HEDGES et al. 2009

Distribution Cuba, Isla de la Juventud

andreai: western and central Cuba to extreme northwestern Camagüey Prov.; intergrades with A. a. orientalis. Type locality: Cuba.

melopyrrha: Cayo Cantiles.

morenoi: Cayo Santa Maria, Cayo Guajaba.

nebulatus: Isla de la Juventud.

orientalis: western Cuba.

peninsulae: Peninsula de Guanahacabibes, Pinar del Rio Province.

Reproduction oviparous

Types Syntypes: ZMUC = UZM R.60766-R.60767
Holotype: IZ 1080 [melopyrrha]
Holotype: IZ 2737 [morenoi]
Holotype: MCZ 11092 [nebulatus]
Holotype: MCZ 11726 [orientalis]
Holotype: AMNH 83235 [peninsulae]

Type species: Liophis andreae REINHARDT and LÜTKEN 1862 is the type species of the genus Caraiba ZAHER et al. 2009.

Diagnosis (genus): The species in this genus has 17 midbody scale rows, 131–157 ventrals, 90–120 subcaudals, 1 apical scale pit, 8 upper labials, 9 lower labials, 20–23 total maxillary teeth, and 25–28 dentary teeth (Table 2). Caraiba differs in at least one of these characters from all other alsophiine genera except Hypsirhynchus. From that genus it differs in having a hemipene with enlarged papillate body calyces in the basal region and medial surface of the lobes (Zaher 1999).

References Alfonso, Yasel U.; Katherine Pellicier Lopez and Diego Armijos-Ojeda 2013. Endemic frog predation by the Cuban lesser racer, Caraiba andreae (Squamata: Dipsadidae), on La Melba, Alexander Von Humboldt National Park, eastern Cuba. Herpetology Notes 6: 91-93
Barbour, T. 1916. The reptiles and amphibians of the Isle of Pines. Annals of the Carnegie Museum 10 (1-2): 297-308.
Barbour, T. and C. T. Ramsden. 1919. The herpetology of Cuba. Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., Harvard Coll. 47: 69-213.
Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA
Garman, S. 1887. On West Indian reptiles in the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Cambridge, Mass. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 24: 278-286.
Garrido, O.H. 1973. Nuevas subespecies de reptiles para Cuba. Torreia, n.s. 30:1-31.
Grazziotin, Felipe G.; Hussam Zaher, Robert W. Murphy, Gustavo Scrocchi, Marco A. Benavides, Ya-Ping Zhang and Sandro L. Bonatto 2012. Molecular phylogeny of the New World Dipsadidae (Serpentes: Colubroidea): a reappraisal. Cladistics DOI: 10.1111/j.1096-0031.2012.00393.x
Hedges, S. Blair; Arnaud Couloux; Vidal, Nicolas 2009. Molecular phylogeny, classification, and biogeography of West Indian racer snakes of the Tribe Alsophiini (Squamata, Dipsadidae, Xenodontinae). Zootaxa 2067: 1-28
Kunz, K. 2005. Photogenic herpetofauna. Notes on Cuban Synanthropic species. Reptilia (GB) (43): 47-53
Petzold, H.G. 1969. Zur Haltung and Fortpflanzungsbiologieeiniger kubanischer Schlangen im Tierpark Berlin. Salamandra 5:124-40.
Reinhardt, JOHANNES & CHRISTIAN FREDERIK LÜTKEN 1862. Bidrag tii det vestindiske Öriges og navnligen tii de dansk-vestindiske Oers Herpetologie. Vidensk. Meddel. Naturhist. For. Kjöbenhavn (10-18): 153-291 [1862]
Rodríguez Schettino, Lourdes, Carlos A. Mancina & Vilma Rivalta González 2013. REPTILES OF CUBA: CHECKLIST AND GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS. Smithsonian Herp. Inf. Serv. (144): 1-96
Schwartz, A. and Henderson, R.W. 1985. A guide to the identification of the amphibians and reptiles of the West Indies exclusive of Hispaniola. Milwaukee Public Mus., 165 pp.
Schwartz, A. and Thomas, R. 1960. Four new snakes (Tropidophis, Dromicus, Alsophis) from the Isla de Pinos and Cuba. Herpetologica 16 (2): 73-90.
Schwartz,A. & Henderson,R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
Thomas, R. and Garrido, O.H. 1967. A new subspecies of Dromicus andreae (Serpentes, Colubridae). Annals of the Carnegie Museum 39 (16): 219-26.
Vogel, Z. 1965. Herpetologische Beobachtungen auf Kuba (III). Aquar. und Terrar. 12 (10): 340-43.

Image
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**NB. Photos used are for educational purposes. No photos are mine. If you own one of them and would like it removed please message me.

Snake Species: Cuban Lesser Racer

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Snake Species: Cuban Lesser Racer
Antillophis andreae melopyrrha

THOMAS and GARRIDO 1967

 

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Higher Taxa Colubridae (Dipsadinae), Alsophiini, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)

Subspecies Caraiba andreae andreae (REINHARDT and LÜTKEN 1862)
Caraiba andreae melopyrrha (THOMAS and GARRIDO 1967)
Caraiba andreae morenoi (GARRIDO 1973)
Caraiba andreae nebulatus (BARBOUR 1916)
Caraiba andreae orientalis (BARBOUR and RAMSDEN 1919)
Caraiba andreae peninsulae (SCHWARTZ and THOMAS 1960)

Common Names BLACK AND WHITE RACER

Synonym Liophis andreae REINHARDT & LÜTKEN 1862: 214
Dromicus cubensis GARMAN 1887: 281
Leimadophis andreae andreae — SCHWARTZ & OGREN 1956
Dromicus andreae — THOMAS and GARRIDO 1967
Antillophis andreai — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 579
Antillophis andreae — KUNZ 2005
Caraiba andreae — ZAHER et al. 2009
Caraiba andreae — HEDGES et al. 2009
Antillophis andreae — GRAZZIOTIN et al. 2012 (by implication)
Caraiba andreai — RODRIGUEZ-SCHETTINO et al. 2013
Caraiba andreae — WALLACH et al. 2014: 148

Caraiba andreae andreae (REINHARDT and LÜTKEN 1862)
Antillophis andreai andreai — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 579
Caraiba andreae andreae — HEDGES et al. 2009

Caraiba andreae melopyrrha (THOMAS and GARRIDO 1967)
Antillophis andreai melopyrrha — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 579
Caraiba andreae melopyrrha — HEDGES et al. 2009

Caraiba andreae morenoi (GARRIDO 1973)
Antillophis andreai morenoi — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 579
Caraiba andreae morenoi — HEDGES et al. 2009

Caraiba andreae nebulatus (BARBOUR 1916)
Antillophis andreai nebulatus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 579
Caraiba andreae nebulatus — HEDGES et al. 2009

Caraiba andreae orientalis (BARBOUR and RAMSDEN 1919)
Antillophis andreai orientalis — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 579
Caraiba andreae orientalis — HEDGES et al. 2009

Caraiba andreae peninsulae (SCHWARTZ and THOMAS 1960)
Antillophis andreai peninsulae — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 579
Caraiba andreae peninsulae — HEDGES et al. 2009

Distribution Cuba, Isla de la Juventud

andreai: western and central Cuba to extreme northwestern Camagüey Prov.; intergrades with A. a. orientalis. Type locality: Cuba.

melopyrrha: Cayo Cantiles.

morenoi: Cayo Santa Maria, Cayo Guajaba.

nebulatus: Isla de la Juventud.

orientalis: western Cuba.

peninsulae: Peninsula de Guanahacabibes, Pinar del Rio Province.

Reproduction oviparous

Types Syntypes: ZMUC = UZM R.60766-R.60767
Holotype: IZ 1080 [melopyrrha]
Holotype: IZ 2737 [morenoi]
Holotype: MCZ 11092 [nebulatus]
Holotype: MCZ 11726 [orientalis]
Holotype: AMNH 83235 [peninsulae]

Type species: Liophis andreae REINHARDT and LÜTKEN 1862 is the type species of the genus Caraiba ZAHER et al. 2009.

Diagnosis (genus): The species in this genus has 17 midbody scale rows, 131–157 ventrals, 90–120 subcaudals, 1 apical scale pit, 8 upper labials, 9 lower labials, 20–23 total maxillary teeth, and 25–28 dentary teeth (Table 2). Caraiba differs in at least one of these characters from all other alsophiine genera except Hypsirhynchus. From that genus it differs in having a hemipene with enlarged papillate body calyces in the basal region and medial surface of the lobes (Zaher 1999).

References Alfonso, Yasel U.; Katherine Pellicier Lopez and Diego Armijos-Ojeda 2013. Endemic frog predation by the Cuban lesser racer, Caraiba andreae (Squamata: Dipsadidae), on La Melba, Alexander Von Humboldt National Park, eastern Cuba. Herpetology Notes 6: 91-93
Barbour, T. 1916. The reptiles and amphibians of the Isle of Pines. Annals of the Carnegie Museum 10 (1-2): 297-308.
Barbour, T. and C. T. Ramsden. 1919. The herpetology of Cuba. Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., Harvard Coll. 47: 69-213.
Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA
Garman, S. 1887. On West Indian reptiles in the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Cambridge, Mass. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 24: 278-286.
Garrido, O.H. 1973. Nuevas subespecies de reptiles para Cuba. Torreia, n.s. 30:1-31.
Grazziotin, Felipe G.; Hussam Zaher, Robert W. Murphy, Gustavo Scrocchi, Marco A. Benavides, Ya-Ping Zhang and Sandro L. Bonatto 2012. Molecular phylogeny of the New World Dipsadidae (Serpentes: Colubroidea): a reappraisal. Cladistics DOI: 10.1111/j.1096-0031.2012.00393.x
Hedges, S. Blair; Arnaud Couloux; Vidal, Nicolas 2009. Molecular phylogeny, classification, and biogeography of West Indian racer snakes of the Tribe Alsophiini (Squamata, Dipsadidae, Xenodontinae). Zootaxa 2067: 1-28
Kunz, K. 2005. Photogenic herpetofauna. Notes on Cuban Synanthropic species. Reptilia (GB) (43): 47-53
Petzold, H.G. 1969. Zur Haltung and Fortpflanzungsbiologieeiniger kubanischer Schlangen im Tierpark Berlin. Salamandra 5:124-40.
Reinhardt, JOHANNES & CHRISTIAN FREDERIK LÜTKEN 1862. Bidrag tii det vestindiske Öriges og navnligen tii de dansk-vestindiske Oers Herpetologie. Vidensk. Meddel. Naturhist. For. Kjöbenhavn (10-18): 153-291 [1862]
Rodríguez Schettino, Lourdes, Carlos A. Mancina & Vilma Rivalta González 2013. REPTILES OF CUBA: CHECKLIST AND GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS. Smithsonian Herp. Inf. Serv. (144): 1-96
Schwartz, A. and Henderson, R.W. 1985. A guide to the identification of the amphibians and reptiles of the West Indies exclusive of Hispaniola. Milwaukee Public Mus., 165 pp.
Schwartz, A. and Thomas, R. 1960. Four new snakes (Tropidophis, Dromicus, Alsophis) from the Isla de Pinos and Cuba. Herpetologica 16 (2): 73-90.
Schwartz,A. & Henderson,R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
Thomas, R. and Garrido, O.H. 1967. A new subspecies of Dromicus andreae (Serpentes, Colubridae). Annals of the Carnegie Museum 39 (16): 219-26.
Vogel, Z. 1965. Herpetologische Beobachtungen auf Kuba (III). Aquar. und Terrar. 12 (10): 340-43.

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**NB. Photos used are for educational purposes. No photos are mine. If you own one of them and would like it removed please message me.

Snake Species: Black and White Racer

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Snake Species: Black and White Racer
Antillophis Andreae

REINHARDT and LÜTKEN 1862

 

snake
http://files.reptiphoto.webnode.cz/system_preview_detail_200001921-cb991cc938-public/Caraiba%20(Antillophis)%20andreae,%20Cuba%20.jpg

Higher Taxa Colubridae (Dipsadinae), Alsophiini, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)

Subspecies Caraiba andreae andreae (REINHARDT and LÜTKEN 1862)
Caraiba andreae melopyrrha (THOMAS and GARRIDO 1967)
Caraiba andreae morenoi (GARRIDO 1973)
Caraiba andreae nebulatus (BARBOUR 1916)
Caraiba andreae orientalis (BARBOUR and RAMSDEN 1919)
Caraiba andreae peninsulae (SCHWARTZ and THOMAS 1960)

Common Names BLACK AND WHITE RACER

Synonym Liophis andreae REINHARDT & LÜTKEN 1862: 214
Dromicus cubensis GARMAN 1887: 281
Leimadophis andreae andreae — SCHWARTZ & OGREN 1956
Dromicus andreae — THOMAS and GARRIDO 1967
Antillophis andreai — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 579
Antillophis andreae — KUNZ 2005
Caraiba andreae — ZAHER et al. 2009
Caraiba andreae — HEDGES et al. 2009
Antillophis andreae — GRAZZIOTIN et al. 2012 (by implication)
Caraiba andreai — RODRIGUEZ-SCHETTINO et al. 2013
Caraiba andreae — WALLACH et al. 2014: 148

Caraiba andreae andreae (REINHARDT and LÜTKEN 1862)
Antillophis andreai andreai — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 579
Caraiba andreae andreae — HEDGES et al. 2009

Caraiba andreae melopyrrha (THOMAS and GARRIDO 1967)
Antillophis andreai melopyrrha — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 579
Caraiba andreae melopyrrha — HEDGES et al. 2009

Caraiba andreae morenoi (GARRIDO 1973)
Antillophis andreai morenoi — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 579
Caraiba andreae morenoi — HEDGES et al. 2009

Caraiba andreae nebulatus (BARBOUR 1916)
Antillophis andreai nebulatus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 579
Caraiba andreae nebulatus — HEDGES et al. 2009

Caraiba andreae orientalis (BARBOUR and RAMSDEN 1919)
Antillophis andreai orientalis — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 579
Caraiba andreae orientalis — HEDGES et al. 2009

Caraiba andreae peninsulae (SCHWARTZ and THOMAS 1960)
Antillophis andreai peninsulae — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 579
Caraiba andreae peninsulae — HEDGES et al. 2009

Distribution Cuba, Isla de la Juventud

andreai: western and central Cuba to extreme northwestern Camagüey Prov.; intergrades with A. a. orientalis. Type locality: Cuba.

melopyrrha: Cayo Cantiles.

morenoi: Cayo Santa Maria, Cayo Guajaba.

nebulatus: Isla de la Juventud.

orientalis: western Cuba.

peninsulae: Peninsula de Guanahacabibes, Pinar del Rio Province.

Reproduction oviparous

Types Syntypes: ZMUC = UZM R.60766-R.60767
Holotype: IZ 1080 [melopyrrha]
Holotype: IZ 2737 [morenoi]
Holotype: MCZ 11092 [nebulatus]
Holotype: MCZ 11726 [orientalis]
Holotype: AMNH 83235 [peninsulae]

Type species: Liophis andreae REINHARDT and LÜTKEN 1862 is the type species of the genus Caraiba ZAHER et al. 2009.

Diagnosis (genus): The species in this genus has 17 midbody scale rows, 131–157 ventrals, 90–120 subcaudals, 1 apical scale pit, 8 upper labials, 9 lower labials, 20–23 total maxillary teeth, and 25–28 dentary teeth (Table 2). Caraiba differs in at least one of these characters from all other alsophiine genera except Hypsirhynchus. From that genus it differs in having a hemipene with enlarged papillate body calyces in the basal region and medial surface of the lobes (Zaher 1999).

This species has only recently been placed in the genus Caraiba (Zaher et al. 2009).

This species is found on Cuba and the Isla de la Juventud as well as a number of offshore cays. The area in which this species is distributed is approximately 11,344 km² and it has an elevational range of 0 to 1,100 m above sea level.

Habitat and Ecology: This species is found in dry scrub, coastal scrub, cultivated fields, urban areas and wooded areas.

Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Justification:
Caraiba andreae has been assessed as Least Concern as it is currently not affected by any major widespread threats and is able to adapt to a wide variety of habitats including those that have been anthropogenically altered. Areas of its distribution coincide with protected areas that provide a safeguard for this species.

Population: There are no population data available for this species.

Major Threat(s): This species appears to be tolerant of human-mediated habitat alterations and is not under any major threats. However, as with many snakes in the West Indies, there is a minor threat of persecution.

This non-venomous endemic snake typically preys on frogs and lizards.

snake
http://static.inaturalist.org/photos/1845013/medium.jpg?1444343287

References Alfonso, Yasel U.; Katherine Pellicier Lopez and Diego Armijos-Ojeda 2013. Endemic frog predation by the Cuban lesser racer, Caraiba andreae (Squamata: Dipsadidae), on La Melba, Alexander Von Humboldt National Park, eastern Cuba. Herpetology Notes 6: 91-93
Barbour, T. 1916. The reptiles and amphibians of the Isle of Pines. Annals of the Carnegie Museum 10 (1-2): 297-308.
Barbour, T. and C. T. Ramsden. 1919. The herpetology of Cuba. Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., Harvard Coll. 47: 69-213.
Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA
Garman, S. 1887. On West Indian reptiles in the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Cambridge, Mass. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 24: 278-286.
Garrido, O.H. 1973. Nuevas subespecies de reptiles para Cuba. Torreia, n.s. 30:1-31.
Grazziotin, Felipe G.; Hussam Zaher, Robert W. Murphy, Gustavo Scrocchi, Marco A. Benavides, Ya-Ping Zhang and Sandro L. Bonatto 2012. Molecular phylogeny of the New World Dipsadidae (Serpentes: Colubroidea): a reappraisal. Cladistics DOI: 10.1111/j.1096-0031.2012.00393.x
Hedges, S. Blair; Arnaud Couloux; Vidal, Nicolas 2009. Molecular phylogeny, classification, and biogeography of West Indian racer snakes of the Tribe Alsophiini (Squamata, Dipsadidae, Xenodontinae). Zootaxa 2067: 1-28
Kunz, K. 2005. Photogenic herpetofauna. Notes on Cuban Synanthropic species. Reptilia (GB) (43): 47-53
Petzold, H.G. 1969. Zur Haltung and Fortpflanzungsbiologieeiniger kubanischer Schlangen im Tierpark Berlin. Salamandra 5:124-40.
Reinhardt, JOHANNES & CHRISTIAN FREDERIK LÜTKEN 1862. Bidrag tii det vestindiske Öriges og navnligen tii de dansk-vestindiske Oers Herpetologie. Vidensk. Meddel. Naturhist. For. Kjöbenhavn (10-18): 153-291 [1862]
Rodríguez Schettino, Lourdes, Carlos A. Mancina & Vilma Rivalta González 2013. REPTILES OF CUBA: CHECKLIST AND GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS. Smithsonian Herp. Inf. Serv. (144): 1-96
Schwartz, A. and Henderson, R.W. 1985. A guide to the identification of the amphibians and reptiles of the West Indies exclusive of Hispaniola. Milwaukee Public Mus., 165 pp.
Schwartz, A. and Thomas, R. 1960. Four new snakes (Tropidophis, Dromicus, Alsophis) from the Isla de Pinos and Cuba. Herpetologica 16 (2): 73-90.
Schwartz,A. & Henderson,R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
Thomas, R. and Garrido, O.H. 1967. A new subspecies of Dromicus andreae (Serpentes, Colubridae). Annals of the Carnegie Museum 39 (16): 219-26.
Vogel, Z. 1965. Herpetologische Beobachtungen auf Kuba (III). Aquar. und Terrar. 12 (10): 340-43.

snake
http://static.inaturalist.org/photos/4638024/medium.jpeg?1471852750

Image
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Snake Species: Boulenger’s Slender Snake

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Snake Species: Boulenger’s Slender Snake
Tachymenis affinis

BOULENGER 1896

snake 8 lives
All animals have a purpose…

Higher Taxa Colubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)

Common Names Boulenger’s Slender Snake

Synonym Tachymenis affinis BOULENGER 1896: 119
Tachymenis affinis — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 289
Tachymenis affinis — LEHR 2002: 96
Tachymenis affinis — WALLACH et al. 2014: 695

Distribution Peru (Huánuco, Amazonas)

Type locality: Muña, Peru

Reproduction viviparous

Types Holotype: BMNH

Venomous!

Walker (1945: 22) suggests that the type locality is on upper Río Huallaga, Huanuco, Peru.

This species is distributed from the type locality in Muna (Huanuco Region), Machu Picchu (Cusco Region) in central and southern Peru (Walker 1945), and the Amazonas Region in northern Peru (Chavez 2012). It has an elevational range from 2,520 to 3,308 m (Lehr 2002, Chavez 2012, P. Venegas pers. comm. 2014).

Habitat and Ecology: This species is from moist montane forest, shrubland habitat, and grassland habitats (Lehr 2002, P. Venegas pers. comm. 2014).

Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Justification:
Listed as Least Concern because it is widespread, locally common, and it is not declining fast enough to qualify for a more threatened category.

Population: This species appears to be locally common in some localities and rare in others. In the absence of widespread threats the population is presumed to be stable.

Major Threat(s): Localized threats like agriculture and cattle grazing may exist, but on a range-wide scale no major threats are known.

References Boulenger, G.A. 1896. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum, Vol. 3. London (Taylor & Francis), xiv + 727 pp.
Chávez, Germán 2011. Tachymenis affinis Boulenger, 1896 (Squamata: Colubridae): distribution extension in Perú. Herpetotropicos 7 (1-2):
Lehr, E. 2002. Amphibien und Reptilien in Peru. Natur und Tier-Verlag (Münster), 208 pp.
Walker, W.F. 1945. A Study of the Snake, Tachymenis peruviana Wiegmann AND ITS Allies. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 96: 1-56

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Snake Species: Brazilian Burrowing Snake

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Snake Species: Brazilian Burrowing Snake
Gomesophis brasiliensis

GOMES 1918

snake
http://www.reptarium.cz/content/photo_rd_03/Gomesophis-brasiliensis-03000030515_01.jpg

Higher Taxa Colubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)

Common Names Brazilian Burrowing Snake

Synonym Tachymenis brasiliensis GOMES 1918: 78
Tachymenis brasiliensis — AMARAL 1932
Gomesophis brasiliensis — HOGE & MERTENS 1959
Gomesophis brasiliensis — DE LEMA 1962
Gomesophis brasiliensis — SCARTOZZONI & MARQUES 2004
Gomesophis brasiliensis — WALLACH et al. 2014: 312

Distribution Brazil (Minas Gerais, Sao Paulo, Parana, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina)

Type locality: Pindamonhangaba, São Paulo, Brazil.

Reproduction viviparous

Types Holotype: IB (= IBSP) 1316

Belongs to the Tachymenini, together with 6 other genera (BAILEY 1967), including Ptychophis, Tomodon, Thamnodynastes, and Tachymenis.

Habitat: burrowing in mud, partially aquatic

Type species: Tachymenis brasiliensis GOMES 1918: 78 is the type species of the genus Gomesophis HOGE & MERTENS 1959.

Etymology Named after the species’ distribution in Brazil.

References Amaral, A. D. 1932. Contribuicao a biologia dos ofidios do Brasil III. Habitos curiosos da especie Tachymenis brasiliensis Gomes (Colubridae, Boiginae). Mem. Inst. Butantan 7: 91-92
Bailey, Joseph R. 1967. The synthetic approach to colubrid classification. Herpetologica 23 (2): 155-161
Barbisan Fortes, Vanessa; Elaine Maria Lucas and Vinícius Matheus Caldart 2010. Reptilia, Serpentes, Dipsadidae, Gomesophis brasiliensis (Gomes, 1918): Distribution extension in state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Check List 6 (3): 414-415
Bérnils, R.S.; Batista, M.A. & Bertelli, P.W. 2001. Cobras e lagartos do Vale: levantamento das espécies de Squamata (Reptilia, Lepidosauria) da Bacia do Rio Itajai, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Rev. Est. Ambientais (Blumenau) 3 (1): 69-79
Franca, F.G.R.; Daniel O. Mesquita, Cristiano C. Nogueira, and
Alexandre F. B. Araújo 2008. Phylogeny and Ecology Determine Morphological Structure in a Snake Assemblage in the Central Brazilian Cerrado. Copeia 2008 (1): 23-38
Gomes, J.F. 1918. Contribuição para o conhecimento dos ofidios do Brasil. III (1). Mem. Inst. Butantan 1 (1): 57-83
Hoge, Alphonse Richard and Robert Mertens. 1959. Eine neue Gattung opisthoglypher Nattern aus Brasilien. Senckenbergiana Biologica 40 (5/6): 241-243
Klaczko, J; Sherratt E, Setz EZF 2016. Are Diet Preferences Associated to Skulls Shape Diversification in Xenodontine Snakes? PLoS ONE 11(2): e0148375. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0148375
Prudente, Ana Lúcia da Costa;Brandão, Reuber A. 1998. Geographic Distribution. Gomesophis brasiliensis. Herpetological Review 29 (2): 112

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Snake Species: Fischer’s Longtail Snake

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Snake Species: Fischer’s Longtail Snake
Enulius flavitorques unicolor

FISCHER 1881

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Higher Taxa Colubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)

Subspecies Enulius flavitorques flavitorques (COPE 1868)
Enulius flavitorques sumichrasti BOCOURT 1883
Enulius flavitorques unicolor (FISCHER 1881)

Common Names Pacific Longtail Snake

Synonym Liophis flavitorques COPE 1868: 307
Enulius murinus COPE 1869: 80
Enulius murinus COPE 1871: 558
Leptocalamus torquatus GÜNTHER 1872 (fide COPE 1894: 205)
Enulius sumichrasti BOCOURT 1883 in DUMÉRIL et al.
Geagras longicaudatus — COPE 1885: 177
Geagras sumichrasti — COPE 1885: 177
Enulius flavitorques – DUNN 1938
Enulius unicolor – ALVAREZ DEL TORO 1982 (fide VILLA et al. 1988)
Enulius sumichrasti – ALVAREZ DEL TORO 1982 (fide VILLA et al. 1988)
Enulius flavitorques – VILLA et al. 1988
Enulius flavitorques — LINER 1994
Enulius flavitorques — SAVAGE 2002
Enulius flavitorques — WALLACH et al. 2014: 274
Enulius flavitorques — MATA-SILVA et al. 2015

Enulius flavitorques sumichrasti BOCOURT 1883
Enulius flavitorques sumichrasti — LINER 2007

Enulius flavitorques unicolor (FISCHER 1881)
Geophis unicolor FISCHER 1881
Leptocalamus unicolor — COPE 1885: 178
Enulius unicolor — ÁLVAREZ DEL TORO & SMITH 1956: 13
Enulius flavitorques unicolor — SMITH Syn. Mex.
Enulius flavitorques unicolor — LINER 2007

Distribution S Mexico (Morelos, Chiapas, Oaxaca, Tabasco), Guatemala, Honduras [HR 34:265] (Solis et al. 2014), Belize ?, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama [Villa], Venezuela, Colombia

unicolor: Mexico (Veracruz); Type locality: Las Vigas b. Jalapa , Vera Cruz, Mexico 8000 ft; Holotypus UMB 434 (lost)

Type locality: Río Magdalena [Magdelena], New Grenada, Colombia

Reproduction oviparous

Types Holotype: ANSP 3695
Syntypes: (2) ANSP 3314-15; Nicaragua, Occidental, Chinandega [Enulius murinus]

Type species: Liophis flavitorques COPE 1868: 307 is the type species of the genus Enulius COPE 1871.

Myers & McDowell (2014) suggested placing this genus in the synonymy of Enulius. The four species of Enulius (following Wallach et al. 2014) are the only New World dipsadines known to have the entire hemipenis covered with minute, uniform spinules. Placing Enuliophis, with its large hemipenial spines, in the synonymy of Enulius would eliminate that synapomorphy for Enulius (MCCRANIE 2015).

References Álvarez DEL TORO, M., & SMITH, H. M. 1956. Notulae herpetologicae Chiapasiae. I. Herpetologica 12: 3-17
Casas-Andreu, G., F.R. Méndez-De la Cruz and X. Aguilar-Miguel. 2004. Anfibios y Reptiles; pp. 375–390, in A.J.M. García-Mendoza, J. Ordoñez and M. Briones-Salas (ed.). Biodiversidad de Oaxaca. Instituto de Biología, UNAM-Fondo Oaxaqueño para la Conservación de la Naturaleza-World Wildlife Fund, México, D. F.
Castro-Franco, Rubén, María Guasalupe Bustos-Zagal 1994. List of reptiles of Morelos, Mexico, and their distribution in relation to vegetation types. Southwestern Naturalist 39 (2): 171-175
Cope, E.D. 1868. Sixth contribution to the herpetology of Tropical America. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 20: 305-313
Cope, E.D. 1871. Eighth contribution to the herpetology of tropical America. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 11: 553-559. [1870]
Cope, E.D. 1885. Twelfth contribution to the herpetology of tropical America. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 22: 167-194 [1884]
Cope, E.D. 1894. Third addition to a knowledge of the batrachia and reptilia of Costa Rica. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1894: 194-206
Cope, Edward D. 1869. Catalogue of Batrachia and Reptilia obtained by J. A. McNiel in Nicaragua. First Annual report of the Trustees of the Peabody Academy of Science 1869: 80-82
Dunn,E.R. 1938. The snake genus Enulius Cope. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 89: 415-418
Fischer, J. G. 1881. Herpetologische Bemerkungen vorzugsweise über Stücke des Naturhistorischen Museums in Bremen. Abhandlungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins in Bremen, 7: 225-238 [Nov. 1881]
Guerra Centeno, Dennis; Héctor Fuentes Rousselin & David Morán Villatoro 2012. Serpientes de Guatemala: Guía para didentificación de especies. Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala, 186 pp.
Günther,A. 1872. Seventh account of new species of snakes in the collection of the British Museum. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4) 9: 13-37
Hernández-Valadez, Eder, Erick Hernández-Estañol, Rosario Barragán-Vázquez, Pierre Charruau and Marco A. López-Luna. 2016. First record and distribution extension of Enulius flavitorques (Cope, 1869) (Squamata: Colubridae) in Tabasco, Mexico. Mesoamerican Herpetology 3 (2): 512-513
Johnson, Jerry D.; Vicente Mata-Silva, Elí García Padilla, and Larry David Wilson 2015. The Herpetofauna of Chiapas, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation. Mesoamerican Herpetology 2 (3): 272–329.
Liner, Ernest A. 2007. A CHECKLIST OF THE AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES OF MEXICO. Louisiana State University Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural Science 80: 1-60
Manzanilla P., J.; Mijares-Urrutia, A.; Rivero, R. & Natera, M. 1999. Primer Registro de Enulius flavitorques (Cope, 1871) (Serpentes: Colubridae) en Venezuela. Caribbean Journal of Science 35 (1-2): 150-151
Mata-Silva, Vicente, Jerry D. Johnson, Larry David Wilson and Elí García-Padilla. 2015. The herpetofauna of Oaxaca, Mexico: composition, physiographic distribution, and conservation status. Mesoamerican Herpetology 2 (1): 6–62
McCranie J R 2011. The snakes of Honduras. SSAR, Salt Lake City, 725 pp.
McCranie J R. Villa J. 1993. A new genus for the snake Enulius sclateri (Colubridae: Xenodontinae). Amphibia-Reptilia 14 (3): 261-267
Mccranie, J. R. & G. KÖHLER 1999. Two new species of colubrid snakes of the genus Enulius from Islas de la Bahia, Honduras. Carib. J. Sci. 35 (1-2): 14-22
McCranie, James R. 2015. A checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras, with additions, comments on taxonomy, some recent taxonomic decisions, and areas of further studies needed. Zootaxa 3931 (3): 352–386
McCranie, James R., Leonardo Valdés Orellana and Alexander Gutsche. 2013. New departmental records for amphibians and reptiles in Honduras. Herpetological Review 44 (2): 288-289
Medina-Rangel, Guido Fabián 2013. CAMBIO EstACIOnAl En El UsO DE lOs RECURsOs DE lA COMUnIDAD DE REptIlEs En El COMplEJO CEnAgOsO DE ZApAtOsA, DEpARtAMEntO DEl CEsAR (Colombia). Caldasia 35 (1):103-122
Mertens, R. 1952. Die Amphibien und Reptilien von El Salvador. Abh. senckenb. naturf. Ges. (Frankfurt) (No. 487): 120 pp.
Myers, Charles W. and Samuel B. McDowell 2014. New Taxa and Cryptic Species of Neotropical Snakes (Xenodontinae), with Commentary on Hemipenes as Generic and Specific Characters. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 385 (1) : 1-112.
Natera-Mumaw, Marco; Luis Felipe Esqueda-González & Manuel Castelaín-Fernández 2015. Atlas Serpientes de Venezuela Santiago de Chile, Dimacofi Negocios Avanzados S.A., 456 pp.
Pérez-Santos,C. & Moreno, A.G. 1988. Ofidios de Colombia. Museo reegionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, Monographie VI, 517 pp.
Peterson, A.T. et al. 2004. A preliminary biological survey of Cerro Piedra Larga, Oaxaca, Mexico: Birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, and plants. Anales del Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Serie Zoología 75(2): 439-466
Porras, L.W. 2006. Die Schlangen des costa-ricanischen Trockenwaldes. Reptilia (Münster) 11 (61): 32-37
Porras, L.W. & Solórzano, A. 2006. Costa Rica’s venomous snakes. Reptilia (GB) (48): 11-17
RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64
Savage, J.M. 2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica: A Herpetofauna Between Two Continents, Between Two Seas. University of Chicago Press, 934 pp. [review in Copeia 2003 (1): 205]
Solís, José M.; Mario R. Espinal, and Carlos M. O’Reilly 2014. Enulius flavitorques (Cope, 1869). Mesoamerican Herpetology 1 (2): 292
Solís, J. M., L. D. Wilson, and J. H. Townsend. 2014. An updated list of the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras, with comments on their nomenclature. Mesoamerican Herpetology 1: 123–144
Sunyer, Javier 2014. An updated checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Nicaragua. Mesoamerican Herpetology 1 (2): 186–202.

Image
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Iolo technologies, LLC
 

**NB. Photos used are for educational purposes. No photos are mine. If you own one of them and would like it removed please message me.

Snake Species: Sumichrast’s Longtail Snake

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Snake Species: Sumichrast’s Longtail Snake
Enulius flavitorques sumichrasti

BOCOURT 1883

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Higher Taxa Colubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)

Subspecies Enulius flavitorques flavitorques (COPE 1868)
Enulius flavitorques sumichrasti BOCOURT 1883
Enulius flavitorques unicolor (FISCHER 1881)

Common Names Pacific Longtail Snake

Synonym Liophis flavitorques COPE 1868: 307
Enulius murinus COPE 1869: 80
Enulius murinus COPE 1871: 558
Leptocalamus torquatus GÜNTHER 1872 (fide COPE 1894: 205)
Enulius sumichrasti BOCOURT 1883 in DUMÉRIL et al.
Geagras longicaudatus — COPE 1885: 177
Geagras sumichrasti — COPE 1885: 177
Enulius flavitorques – DUNN 1938
Enulius unicolor – ALVAREZ DEL TORO 1982 (fide VILLA et al. 1988)
Enulius sumichrasti – ALVAREZ DEL TORO 1982 (fide VILLA et al. 1988)
Enulius flavitorques – VILLA et al. 1988
Enulius flavitorques — LINER 1994
Enulius flavitorques — SAVAGE 2002
Enulius flavitorques — WALLACH et al. 2014: 274
Enulius flavitorques — MATA-SILVA et al. 2015

Enulius flavitorques sumichrasti BOCOURT 1883
Enulius flavitorques sumichrasti — LINER 2007

Enulius flavitorques unicolor (FISCHER 1881)
Geophis unicolor FISCHER 1881
Leptocalamus unicolor — COPE 1885: 178
Enulius unicolor — ÁLVAREZ DEL TORO & SMITH 1956: 13
Enulius flavitorques unicolor — SMITH Syn. Mex.
Enulius flavitorques unicolor — LINER 2007

Distribution S Mexico (Morelos, Chiapas, Oaxaca, Tabasco), Guatemala, Honduras [HR 34:265] (Solis et al. 2014), Belize ?, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama [Villa], Venezuela, Colombia

unicolor: Mexico (Veracruz); Type locality: Las Vigas b. Jalapa , Vera Cruz, Mexico 8000 ft; Holotypus UMB 434 (lost)

Type locality: Río Magdalena [Magdelena], New Grenada, Colombia

Reproduction oviparous

Types Holotype: ANSP 3695
Syntypes: (2) ANSP 3314-15; Nicaragua, Occidental, Chinandega [Enulius murinus]

Type species: Liophis flavitorques COPE 1868: 307 is the type species of the genus Enulius COPE 1871.

Myers & McDowell (2014) suggested placing this genus in the synonymy of Enulius. The four species of Enulius (following Wallach et al. 2014) are the only New World dipsadines known to have the entire hemipenis covered with minute, uniform spinules. Placing Enuliophis, with its large hemipenial spines, in the synonymy of Enulius would eliminate that synapomorphy for Enulius (MCCRANIE 2015).

References Álvarez DEL TORO, M., & SMITH, H. M. 1956. Notulae herpetologicae Chiapasiae. I. Herpetologica 12: 3-17
Casas-Andreu, G., F.R. Méndez-De la Cruz and X. Aguilar-Miguel. 2004. Anfibios y Reptiles; pp. 375–390, in A.J.M. García-Mendoza, J. Ordoñez and M. Briones-Salas (ed.). Biodiversidad de Oaxaca. Instituto de Biología, UNAM-Fondo Oaxaqueño para la Conservación de la Naturaleza-World Wildlife Fund, México, D. F.
Castro-Franco, Rubén, María Guasalupe Bustos-Zagal 1994. List of reptiles of Morelos, Mexico, and their distribution in relation to vegetation types. Southwestern Naturalist 39 (2): 171-175
Cope, E.D. 1868. Sixth contribution to the herpetology of Tropical America. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 20: 305-313
Cope, E.D. 1871. Eighth contribution to the herpetology of tropical America. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 11: 553-559. [1870]
Cope, E.D. 1885. Twelfth contribution to the herpetology of tropical America. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 22: 167-194 [1884]
Cope, E.D. 1894. Third addition to a knowledge of the batrachia and reptilia of Costa Rica. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1894: 194-206
Cope, Edward D. 1869. Catalogue of Batrachia and Reptilia obtained by J. A. McNiel in Nicaragua. First Annual report of the Trustees of the Peabody Academy of Science 1869: 80-82
Dunn,E.R. 1938. The snake genus Enulius Cope. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 89: 415-418
Fischer, J. G. 1881. Herpetologische Bemerkungen vorzugsweise über Stücke des Naturhistorischen Museums in Bremen. Abhandlungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins in Bremen, 7: 225-238 [Nov. 1881]
Guerra Centeno, Dennis; Héctor Fuentes Rousselin & David Morán Villatoro 2012. Serpientes de Guatemala: Guía para didentificación de especies. Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala, 186 pp.
Günther,A. 1872. Seventh account of new species of snakes in the collection of the British Museum. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4) 9: 13-37
Hernández-Valadez, Eder, Erick Hernández-Estañol, Rosario Barragán-Vázquez, Pierre Charruau and Marco A. López-Luna. 2016. First record and distribution extension of Enulius flavitorques (Cope, 1869) (Squamata: Colubridae) in Tabasco, Mexico. Mesoamerican Herpetology 3 (2): 512-513
Johnson, Jerry D.; Vicente Mata-Silva, Elí García Padilla, and Larry David Wilson 2015. The Herpetofauna of Chiapas, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation. Mesoamerican Herpetology 2 (3): 272–329.
Liner, Ernest A. 2007. A CHECKLIST OF THE AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES OF MEXICO. Louisiana State University Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural Science 80: 1-60
Manzanilla P., J.; Mijares-Urrutia, A.; Rivero, R. & Natera, M. 1999. Primer Registro de Enulius flavitorques (Cope, 1871) (Serpentes: Colubridae) en Venezuela. Caribbean Journal of Science 35 (1-2): 150-151
Mata-Silva, Vicente, Jerry D. Johnson, Larry David Wilson and Elí García-Padilla. 2015. The herpetofauna of Oaxaca, Mexico: composition, physiographic distribution, and conservation status. Mesoamerican Herpetology 2 (1): 6–62
McCranie J R 2011. The snakes of Honduras. SSAR, Salt Lake City, 725 pp.
McCranie J R. Villa J. 1993. A new genus for the snake Enulius sclateri (Colubridae: Xenodontinae). Amphibia-Reptilia 14 (3): 261-267
Mccranie, J. R. & G. KÖHLER 1999. Two new species of colubrid snakes of the genus Enulius from Islas de la Bahia, Honduras. Carib. J. Sci. 35 (1-2): 14-22
McCranie, James R. 2015. A checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras, with additions, comments on taxonomy, some recent taxonomic decisions, and areas of further studies needed. Zootaxa 3931 (3): 352–386
McCranie, James R., Leonardo Valdés Orellana and Alexander Gutsche. 2013. New departmental records for amphibians and reptiles in Honduras. Herpetological Review 44 (2): 288-289
Medina-Rangel, Guido Fabián 2013. CAMBIO EstACIOnAl En El UsO DE lOs RECURsOs DE lA COMUnIDAD DE REptIlEs En El COMplEJO CEnAgOsO DE ZApAtOsA, DEpARtAMEntO DEl CEsAR (Colombia). Caldasia 35 (1):103-122
Mertens, R. 1952. Die Amphibien und Reptilien von El Salvador. Abh. senckenb. naturf. Ges. (Frankfurt) (No. 487): 120 pp.
Myers, Charles W. and Samuel B. McDowell 2014. New Taxa and Cryptic Species of Neotropical Snakes (Xenodontinae), with Commentary on Hemipenes as Generic and Specific Characters. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 385 (1) : 1-112.
Natera-Mumaw, Marco; Luis Felipe Esqueda-González & Manuel Castelaín-Fernández 2015. Atlas Serpientes de Venezuela Santiago de Chile, Dimacofi Negocios Avanzados S.A., 456 pp.
Pérez-Santos,C. & Moreno, A.G. 1988. Ofidios de Colombia. Museo reegionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, Monographie VI, 517 pp.
Peterson, A.T. et al. 2004. A preliminary biological survey of Cerro Piedra Larga, Oaxaca, Mexico: Birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, and plants. Anales del Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Serie Zoología 75(2): 439-466
Porras, L.W. 2006. Die Schlangen des costa-ricanischen Trockenwaldes. Reptilia (Münster) 11 (61): 32-37
Porras, L.W. & Solórzano, A. 2006. Costa Rica’s venomous snakes. Reptilia (GB) (48): 11-17
RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64
Savage, J.M. 2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica: A Herpetofauna Between Two Continents, Between Two Seas. University of Chicago Press, 934 pp. [review in Copeia 2003 (1): 205]
Solís, José M.; Mario R. Espinal, and Carlos M. O’Reilly 2014. Enulius flavitorques (Cope, 1869). Mesoamerican Herpetology 1 (2): 292
Solís, J. M., L. D. Wilson, and J. H. Townsend. 2014. An updated list of the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras, with comments on their nomenclature. Mesoamerican Herpetology 1: 123–144
Sunyer, Javier 2014. An updated checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Nicaragua. Mesoamerican Herpetology 1 (2): 186–202.

Image
Little scorpion.com

Iolo technologies, LLC
 

**NB. Photos used are for educational purposes. No photos are mine. If you own one of them and would like it removed please message me.

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