Category Archives: Snakes

Snake: Water-sipping snake is surprisingly cute

Snake: Water-sipping snake is surprisingly cute

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It isn’t often one finds occasion to use the words “snake” and “cute” in the same sentence, yet we can’t help but utter an “Awww…” over Bacon Bit, a Western Hognose Snake, sidling up to a bowl to sip some water.

According to the description at YouTube:
Snakes don’t lap water like a dog. It’s thought that some use capillary action to draw water in via grooves in the scales lining the mouth. Bacon Bit appears to gulp!

What we’d really like to know, though, is how one comes to name a snake Bacon Bit.

Full story at YouTube via VideoSift.

Adorable animals.
Posted by Kate Rinsema

Source: https://holykaw.alltop.com/water-sipping-snake-surprisingly-cute
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Snake: World’s longest venomous snake

Snake: World’s longest venomous snake now lives in New South Wales

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The longest venomous snake in the world is now living at a Central Coast reptile park.

Raja, a king cobra, is more than four metres long and weighs almost eight kilos.

King cobra bites are said to have a 50 per cent mortality rate and yield enough venom to kill an elephant.

snake
The cobra is 4.1m long according to the reptile park. Source: The Australian Reptile Park
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Spare a thought for the keepers at The Australian Reptile Park who have to milk Raja’s venom during regular health checks.

“He’s an intimidating animal,” the park’s Dan Rumsey said.

“Raja is impressive, and a great ambassador for his species, educating over 240,000 people who visit the Reptile Park each year on how unique his species is and the challenges they face in the wild.”

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Raja has already helped produce more king cobras via the park’s breeding program: Source: The Australian Reptile Park
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snake
Source: The Australian Reptile Park
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The king cobra population has declined by about 80 per cent across Indonesia due to deforestation.

But the park hopes Raja, who has already fathered two clutches of king cobra babies, will father more through its breeding program.

Source: https://au.news.yahoo.com/a/35073724/four-metre-king-cobra-joins-nsw-central-coast-reptile-park/#page1


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Snakes on a… motorbike. Rider forced to swerve

Snakes on a… motorbike? Rider forced to swerve as FLYING serpent leaps to attack him in Thailand

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Snakes on a… motorbike? Rider forced to swerve as FLYING serpent leaps to attack him in Thailand

A motorbike rider has come under attack from a leaping snake in Thailand
Footage captured the moment the snake leapt in the air as the bike rode past
The man was forced to lift his legs to avoid being bitten by the serpent

By Josh Hanrahan For Daily Mail Australia

Motorbike riders in Thailand are accustomed to all kinds of dangers in a country that has an extremely high road toll.

But one rider could not have been expecting a shocking wildlife encounter as he enjoyed a scenic ride through the mountains.

Video captured the moment he came under attack from a flying snake, which leapt toward him as he rode through jungle in Lampang, in the country’s north.

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-4419994/Flying-snake-attacks-motorbike-rider-Thailand.html#v-4652870758416796990

The incredible footage initially appears innocuous, with the man riding casually in a bushland area.

While riding through the mountainous stretch of road, the man can be seen moving to the left of his lane.

Suddenly, a long object appears in the middle of the road and begins slithering in the direction of the motorbike rider.

As the motorbike rider slows down to and tries to take evasive action, the huge snake leapt into mid-air in an effort to attack him.

snakes
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snakes
A motorbike rider has been given the fright of his life after coming under attack from a leaping snake (pictured) as he rode through a mountainous region of Lampang, in Thailand’s north
Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-4419994/Flying-snake-attacks-motorbike-rider-Thailand.html#ixzz4edh1c1fQ
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snakes
Desperate to avoid being bitten, the man was forced to lift his legs up into the air to get out of the way of the metre-and-a-half long snake
Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-4419994/Flying-snake-attacks-motorbike-rider-Thailand.html#ixzz4edhQKtBL
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Desperate to avoid being bitten, the man was forced to lift his legs up into the air to get them out of the way of the metre-and-a-half long snake.

Apparently frightened by the near-miss, the rider can be seen looking around in shock after the incident.

But just moments later, having shaken off the scary encounter, the man continues on with his casual ride as if nothing had happened.

Source: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-4419994/Flying-snake-attacks-motorbike-rider-Thailand.html?ito=social-twitter_mailonline

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Snake: Court sides with reptile keepers

Snake: Court sides with reptile keepers against giant snake ban

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Court sides with reptile keepers against giant snake ban

The Associated Press

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MIAMI (AP) – An appeals court has ruled the federal government cannot legally stop trade of Burmese pythons and other giant exotic snakes within the continental U.S.

However, snake owners are cautioned not to move their reptiles just yet as other legal challenges may remain.

The United States Association of Reptile Keepers sued in 2013 to overturn a nationwide ban on importing eight constrictor species or taking them across state lines.

In an April 7 decision, the D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals upheld a lower court’s ruling that the U.S. wildlife officials didn’t have authority to restrict interstate trade of snakes such as Burmese pythons, reticulated pythons or green anacondas.

The Center for Biological Diversity says the court addressed the law’s wording but not the data supporting the ban.

Source: http://wjtv.com/2017/04/17/court-sides-with-reptile-keepers-against-giant-snake-ban/
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Rattlesnake: People Are Killing Entire Families

Rattlesnake:People Are Killing Entire Families Of Snakes In Cruel ‘Contest’

Warning: contains graphic material

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People Are Killing Entire Families Of Snakes In Cruel ‘Contest’

“It’s the sound of a thousand snakes screaming.”

Elizabeth Claire Alberts

Jo-Anne McArthur has never forgotten the sound of rattlesnakes trapped inside a killing pit in Sweetwater, Texas.

It was 2015, and she was attending the city’s annual rattlesnake roundup festival, where thousands of rattlesnakes are kept in tiny pits inside an arena, then brutally slaughtered in front of the public. People talked and kids screamed — but the snakes rattling their tails seemed to be the loudest sound out of everything.

rattlesnake
Rattlesnakes in the holding pit (Jo-Anne McArthur/We Animals)
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“When they’re in the pits, one on top of the other, they’re all rattling,” McArthur, a photojournalist and author of “We Animals,” told The Dodo. “It doesn’t mean, ‘I’m about to attack.’ It means, ‘I’m afraid. Don’t step near me.’ It’s the sound of a thousand snakes screaming.”

Snakes are often viewed with fear and disdain, and people sometimes find it hard to relate to them. Yet Melissa Amarello, cofounder and director of education for Advocates for Snake Preservation (ASP), told The Dodo that snakes are social animals who form strong family bonds.

rattlesnake
Credit Jo-Anne McArthur/We Animals
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“It’s surprising how similar they are to us,” Amarello told The Dodo. “Rattlesnakes give birth to live babies, and they take care of their babies for the first couple weeks of their lives, keeping them warm and safe from predators. In some rattlesnakes, the mothers will come together in the latter parts of their pregnancies and gestate together. And then they’ll give birth at the same spot and they’ll help take care of each other’s babies.”

Warning: Graphic photos below

rattlesnake
Jo-Anne McArthur/We Animals
https://assets.rbl.ms/9808751/980x.jpg

But each year, rattlesnake families are torn apart when people capture thousands of animals to slaughter them at roundup festivals in Texas, Oklahoma and other U.S. states. They capture them by dumping gasoline into their dens, which makes it impossible for snake families to breathe underground.

The roundups started 50 or 60 years ago to keep rattlesnake populations down and protect livestock, although Amarello argues that these killings are unnecessary.

 

rattlesnake
Dead snakes in the killing area of the Sweetwater roundup Jo-Anne McArthur/We Animals
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“The roundup proponents say that the snakes are overpopulated, and that they’re overrunning town, so they had to do something about the snakes,” Amarello said. “But they’re in no danger of being overpopulated. There’s no science to suggest that there are too many rattlesnakes, or that we need roundups to control them.”

The real purpose of the rattlesnake roundups appears to be financial gain, according to Amarello, as each event brings in a large flow of tourists. The event in Sweetwater, Texas, which is the largest rattlesnake roundup in the country, attracts about 30,000 people.

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The Sweetwater rattlesnake roundup festival
Jo-Anne McArthur/We Animals

https://assets.rbl.ms/9808713/980x.jpg

“If you can picture a typical, small town American county fair — there’s all of that stuff,” Amarello said. “There’s fried bread and funnel cakes and amusement park rides. There’s a flea market. There’s a gun show. And then there’s the area that’s focused around the snakes.”

After spending weeks — if not months — in boxes without food or water, the rattlesnakes arrive at the festival weak, hungry and dehydrated.

rattlesnake
Jo-Anne McArthur/We Animals
https://assets.rbl.ms/9808714/980x.jpg

While every rattlesnake roundup works a little differently, Amarello explained that the snakes tend to be moved through different stations. The first station is the processing area, where snakes are measured and weighed, Amarello said.

“There are prizes for who brings in the biggest snakes, and the most number of pounds per hunting group,” Amarello said.

After their initial weigh-in, the snakes are tossed into a communal pit.

Rattlesnake
Jo-Anne McArthur/We Animals
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“While they’re in that pit, the roundup guys are constantly wading through it, and kicking the snakes around, which they claim they need to do to turn them over, because the snakes are ‘too stupid’ and they’ll just smother each other, which is ridiculous,” Amarello said. “They will smother each other in that pit because there are just too many in there, and they’re just crushing each other.”

Rattlesnake
Jo-Anne McArthur/We Animals
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It’s here that the snakes really start rattling their tails.

“The rattle that we all associate with being a warning, that’s the sign of fear,” Amarello said. “When they think that death is imminent, they rattle. It means they’re scared.”

Rattlesnake
Jo-Anne McArthur/We Animals
https://assets.rbl.ms/9808719/980x.jpg

But it’s not just their rattles that give away their fears — it’s also the smell, according to Amarello.

“Rattlesnakes will emit a pheromone that’s a sign of fear,” she said. “That smell was overwhelming at Sweetwater. For me, that was even more upsetting than seeing them killed, because I know that smell means that they’re scared, and they’re trying to tell others that there’s something frightening going on, and something dangerous. It was overwhelmingly strong.”

From the holding pit, some snakes are briefly taken into an educational area, although Amarello refutes the educational value of what’s done there.

Rattlesnake
Jo-Anne McArthur/We Animals
https://assets.rbl.ms/9808660/980x.jpg

“A lot of the roundups really push that they’re all about educating the public about snakes, but it looks like more of a show,” Amarello said. “They have the snakes bite balloons and pop them to show how far they can strike. They were doing things at Sweetwater like poking the snakes with sticks until the snakes were so stressed out that they hide their head beneath their coils. And when they’re in that position, they like to pick them up with their bare hands to show people like, ‘Look, they can be very docile.'”

Rattlesnake
Kids touching a decapitated snake body
Jo-Anne McArthur/We Animals

https://assets.rbl.ms/9808779/980x.jpg

After that, the snakes are taken to the venom milking area, where people force snakes to spit out their venom, which they collect in vessels. According to Amarello, the roundup organizers claim that this is necessary for antivenom research. Yet some research companies refuse to take venom from roundups on the grounds that the events are harmful to snakes.

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A man ‘milking’ venom from a rattlesnake
Jo-Anne McArthur/We Animals

https://assets.rbl.ms/9808661/980x.jpg

Then the snakes arrive at their final destination — the killing pit.

The killing method is decapitation, but this doesn’t instantly kill them, according to Amarello.

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A snake right after decapitation
Jo-Anne McArthur/We Animals

https://assets.rbl.ms/9808677/980x.jpg

“Decapitating a reptile is not a humane way to kill it,” Amarello said. “Because of their very slow metabolisms, they basically remain alive, and can probably feel things for minutes to hours after decapitation. And when you’re there, you can see this — the mouth is still gasping for breath, the body is still writhing around.”

Some festivals now require snakes to be shot in the head with a bolt gun (a tool commonly used in commercial slaughterhouses) before decapitation, which is supposed to decrease suffering. But this doesn’t always work, according to Amarello.

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Discarded rattlesnake heads
Jo-Anne McArthur/We Animals

https://assets.rbl.ms/9808723/980x.jpg

“Apparently, to be effective the bolt gun has to hit a precise spot,” Amarello said. “Otherwise, you’re just causing more pain instead of stunning.”

No matter how they’re killed, McArthur believes that all of the snakes have one thing in common — they’re all terrified.

Rattlesnake
Jo-Anne McArthur/We Animals
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“Their bodies are fighting with all of their might,” McArthur said. “They’re twisting and turning and they’re rattling because they want to get away.”

After decapitation, the snakes’ bodies are skinned. The event organizers encourage the public to get involved — including children. To McArthur, this is one of the most disturbing parts of the events.

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A child skinning a snake
Credit: decapitation

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“The kids can skin the animal, dip their hands in the blood, and put their handprints on the white wall and sign their name next to it,” McArthur said. “It’s very gruesome. The parents are like, ‘Pull, pull on that skin. Get your hands dirty!'”

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Jo-Anne McArthur/We Animals
https://assets.rbl.ms/9808682/980x.jpg

Afterwards, the snake skins are made into boots, wallets and a ton of trinkets, according to Amarello. And the snake meat is cooked up and served at the snack bar.

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Snake meat for sale
Jo-Anne McArthur/We Animals

https://assets.rbl.ms/9808700/980x.jpg

The Oklahoma rattlesnake roundups are run in a similar manner to the one in Sweetwater, but with a few differences. First of all, the Oklahoma events are much smaller than Sweetwater, and fewer people attend. Secondly, a lot of the killing takes place out of public view. But this doesn’t make the Oklahoma festivals any less cruel, Amarello explained. In fact, she thinks what they do at the Oklahoma festivals is much worse.

Rattlesnake
A snake with his mouth sewn shut at an Oklahoma roundup
Credit: Advocates for Snake Preservation

https://assets.rbl.ms/9808696/980x.png

“They’ll throw the snakes in a fridge freezer until they can’t move,” Amarello said. “Then they sew their mouths shut so they can basically hand these snakes to the public, so that people can pose for pictures and have snakes in their laps. It’s a pretty clear violation to animal cruelty laws in Oklahoma.”

Rattlesnake
A snake with his mouth sewn shut at an Oklahoma roundup
Credit: Advocates for Snake Preservation

https://assets.rbl.ms/9808691/980x.png

Unfortunately, there is no official count of snakes at each event — instead, the organizers just measure them in pounds. But Amarello believes that thousands of snakes are killed at each festival, and this could have a devastating effect on rattlesnake populations.

In fact, roundups have been indicated as a cause of decline in at least one type of rattlesnake — the eastern diamondback rattlesnake.

Rattlesnake
A snake skinning area at the Sweetwater roundup
Jo-Anne McArthur/We Animals

https://assets.rbl.ms/9808725/980x.jpg

Other rattlesnake populations haven’t been researched as extensively, but Dr. David Steen, a professor of wildlife ecology and conservation at Auburn University Museum of Natural History, believes that roundups would have a negative effect on these species, too.

rattlesnake
Jo-Anne McArthur/We Animals
https://assets.rbl.ms/9808727/980x.jpg

“Snakes are secretive and highly camouflaged and this makes them difficult to study; we know little about how their populations change over time and in response to the many different ways we disturb them, including collection for rattlesnake roundups,” Steen told The Dodo. “The removal of snakes from a population clearly reduces the number of animals, but we don’t know how this affects the population overall over the long term. However, I think it is common sense that intensive collection of snakes in a given spot over many years is likely to be detrimental to the affected rattlesnake population.”

Rattlesnake
Jo-Anne McArthur/We Animals
https://assets.rbl.ms/9808748/980x.jpg

Instead of rounding snakes up for these events, McArthur believes that the organizers should learn to live with nature. “If the snakes are bothersome, then put on some high rubber boots when you go into your backyard,” she said.

McArthur also suggested a potentially easy way to save snakes, but not hurt local economies that depend on the roundups — run the festivals with the amusement park rides, the gun shows and parades, but get rid of the snake killing events.

Rattlesnake
https://assets.rbl.ms/9808783/980x.jpg

“It’s a cultural thing, and it’s a money draw, but they can still do all of it without the killing,” McArthur said.

To help stop these rattlesnake roundups, you can sign this petition or make a donation to ASP.

Source: https://www.thedodo.com/snake-killing-contest-2354213835.html


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Snakebite: Aussie woman bitten after stepping on snake

Snakebite

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Aussie woman bitten after stepping on venomous snake at Ubud hotel

By Coconuts Bali

An Australian woman was apparently bitten by a venomous snake after she stepped on it while at her Ubud hotel last month.

Renee Cunningham, says she didn’t immediately realize she had been bitten, but claims she “felt something slimy” and soon after felt shooting pain in her leg, which was “blistering and bubbling.”

The 34-year-old had been on vacation in Bali with her sister and was on the way to the hotel’s pool when she had her fateful encounter, according to Australian news reports.

“I looked down and saw it was a snake,” Cunningham said.

The mother of three was rushed to a clinic close to her hotel by staff, but because they didn’t have the antivenom she needed, she was sent to an Ubud hospital.

“By the time I got to the hospital my blood pressure was skyrocketing and I was vomiting and going unconscious,” she said.

“I was unwell for that whole night, and the antivenom (also) made me unwell,” she added.

Visiting the ER was definitely intimidating, but a godsend for Cunningham.

“The emergency ward was confronting and scary. There was no sheets and blood on the walls but the staff were amazing. They saved my life.”

Cunningham did have travel insurance, but as she had “chosen the cheapest, most basic option, it didn’t cover the $1,000 worth of hospital expenses.”

But “luckily, the resort paid the bills,” Australia Seven News reporter Rebecca Marsh said in a broadcast.

Cunningham stayed overnight at the hospital and was given a mixture of antivenoms (doctors weren’t sure which snake had bitten the Aussie) along with doses of antibiotics, steroids, and anti-inflammatories.

Cunnigham says she’s been in recovery the past month but she won’t let her experience keep her from visiting Bali again.

“I’ve had severe joint pains to the point I haven’t been able to walk properly and my blood pressure kept going up and down, but I’m all right now,” she said.

“It was a freak accident. It could have happened any where but the people were amazing.”

Given Bali’s lush, tropical landscape, snakes are not uncommon on the island, especially in Ubud. Watch your step and if you encounter one, it’s best if you leave it be, says a Bali reptile expert.

Source: https://coconuts.co/bali/news/aussie-woman-bitten-stepping-venomous-snake-ubud-hotel/
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Snake Species: Orange-Ringed Coralsnake

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Snake Species: Orange-Ringed Coralsnake
Micrurus hemprichii ortonii

SCHMIDT 1953

snake
https://lh4.googleusercontent.com/-94g4w3mfI6I/Ugf08hrCfjI/AAAAAAAAHOw/iHDGsueceUc/s800/IMG_8402.jpg

Higher Taxa Elapidae, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)

Subspecies Micrurus hemprichii hemprichii (JAN 1858)
Micrurus hemprichii ortoni SCHMIDT 1953

Common Names Hemprich’s Coral Snake

Synonym Elaps hemprichii JAN 1858: 523
Micrurus hemprichii — AMARAL 1929: 230
Micrurus hemprichii — KORNACKER 1999: 153
Micrurus hemprichii — WHITHWORTH & BEIRNE 2011
Micrurus hemprichii — WALLACH et al. 2014: 447

Micrurus hemprichii hemprichii (JAN 1858)
Elaps hemprichii JAN 1858: 523
Micrurus hemprichii hemprichii — SCHMIDT 1953: 166
Micrurus hemprichii hemprichii — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 210
Micrurus hemprichi hemprichi — GASC & RODRIGUES 1980
Micrurus hemprichii hemprichii — GORZULA & SEÑARIS 1999

Micrurus hemprichii ortoni SCHMIDT 1953
Micrurus hemprichii ortoni SCHMIDT 1953: 166
Micrurus hemprichii ortoni — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 210
Micrurus rondonianus ROZE & DA SILVA 1990
Micrurus hemprichi rondonianus — ROZE 1994
Micrurus hemprichii ortoni — FEITOSA et al. 2007
Micrurus hemprichii ortonii — WHITHWORTH & BEIRNE 2011

Distribution Colombia, Venezuela (TF Amazonas), Guyana, French Guiana, Surinam,
Ecuador, Peru, Brazil (Para, Rondonia), Bolivia

hemprichii: E Colombia, S Venezuela, the Guianas, NE Brazil; Type locality: Colombia.

ortoni: Upper Amazon of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia; Type locality: Pebs (Pebas fide SCHMIDT 1955), Peru.

Reproduction oviparous.

Types Syntypes: sex unknown, Colombia (MSNM, destroyed in World War II) and an unknown locality (NHMW = NMW, status unknown). Schmidt (1953a) doubts that one of the types could have come from Colombia and proposes “vicinity of Bartica, British Guiana” as the new type locality. However, Roze (1955) argues that the original type locality may have been correct, and he reports a specimen from only a few kilometers of the Colombian border in Venezuela. Boulenger, 1896:421; Boulenger, 1898a: 131 (cited from HARVEY et al. 2003).
Holotype: MCZ 12423, male, “Pebas, Peru” [ortonii]
Holotype: UCG 3299, male, parapes: UCG, MCZ, USNM, IMTM, MPEG [rondonianus]

Synonymy mainly after PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970. Micrurus hemprichii rondonianus ROZE & DA SILVA 1990 was synonymized with Micrurus hemprichii ortoni by Silva 1993 and reduced to subspecies by ROZE 1994. M. h. rondonianus appears to be a melanistic form (ROZE 1994).

Venomous!

Max total length: 85 cm.
Etymology Named after Wilhelm Friedrich Hemprich (1796-1825), German naturalist.

snake
https://lh5.googleusercontent.com/–kogzTKA28I/Ugf071uuOII/AAAAAAAAHOw/VECqdIATT9I/s800/IMG_8397.jpg

References
Amaral,A. do 1930. Estudos sobre ophidios neotropicos XVIII. Lista remissiva dos ophidios da região neotropica. Mem. Inst. Butantan 4: 126-271 [1929]
BERNARDE, P.S., ALBUQUERQUE, S., BARROS, T.O. & TURCI, L.C.B. 2012. Serpentes do Estado de Rondônia, Brasil. Biota Neotrop. 12(3): 1-29
BERNARDE, Paulo Sérgio; Jáson de Oliveira GOMES 2012. Serpentes peçonhentas e ofidismo em Cruzeiro do Sul, Alto Juruá, Estado do Acre, Brasil. Acta Amazonica 42 (1): 65 – 72
Bernarde, Paulo Sérgio;, Reginaldo Assêncio Machado & Luiz Carlos Batista Turci 2011. Herpetofauna da área do Igarapé Esperança na Reserva Extrativista Riozinho da Liberdade, Acre – Brasil. Biota Neotrop. 11 (3): 117-144
Campbell, J.A. & Lamar, W.W. 1989. The Venomous Reptiles of Latin America. Comstock Publishing/Cornell University Press, Ithaca
Claessen, H. 2005. De slangen van de Guyana’s, deel IX. Lacerta 63 (6): 228-241
Cole, Charles J.; Carol R. Townsend, Robert P. Reynolds, Ross D. MacCulloch, and Amy Lathrop 2013. Amphibians and reptiles of Guyana, South America: illustrated keys, annotated species accounts, and a biogeographic synopsis. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 125 (4): 317-578; plates: 580-620
Feitosa, Darlan T., Paulo P. Passos and Ana Lúcia Prudente. 2007. Taxonomic status and geographic variation of the slender coralsnake Micrurus filiformis (Günther, 1859) (Serpentes, Elapidae). South American J. Herp. 2 (3): 149-156
Fraga R de, Stow AJ, Magnusson WE, Lima AP 2014. The Costs of Evaluating Species Densities and Composition of Snakes to Assess Development Impacts in Amazonia. PLoS ONE 9(8): e105453. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0105453
Frota, J.G. da; Pedroso dos Santos-Jr, Alfredo; Menezes-Chalkidis, H. de & Guimarães Guedes, A. 2005. AS SERPENTES DA REGIÃO DO BAIXO RIO AMAZONAS, OESTE DO ESTADO DO PARÁ, BRASIL (SQUAMATA). Biociências 13 (2): 211-220
Gasc & Rodrigues 1980. Liste preliminaire des Serpents de la Guyane francaise. Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat. Paris 2 (4): 559-598
Gorzula, Stefan & Senaris, J. Celsa 1999. In: Contribution to the herpetofauna of the Venezuelan Guayana. I: a data base. Scientia Guaianae, Caracas, No. 8 [1998], 269+ pp.; ISBN 980-6020-48-0
Harvey M. B., J. Aparicio E, and L. Gonzalez A. 2003. Revision of the venomous snakes of Bolivia: Part 1. The coralsnakes (Elapidae: Micrurus). Annals of the Carnegie Museum 72: 1-52
Jan, G. 1858. Plan d’une iconographie descriptive des ophidiens et description sommaire de nouvelles espèces des serpents. Rev. Mag. Zool. Paris (2) 10: 438-449, 514-527
KOK, P. J. R., ROZE, J. A., LENGLET, G. L., SAMBHU, H. & ARJOON, D. 2003. Micrurus isozonus (Cope, 1860) (Serpentes, Elapidae): an addition to the herpetofauna of Guyana, with comments on other species of coral snakes from Guyana. Bulletin de l’Institut Royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique, Biologie, 73 : 75-82
Kornacker,P.M. 1999. Checklist and key to the snakes of Venezuela. PaKo-Verlag, Rheinbach, Germany, 270 pp.
Lancini,A.R. & Kornacker,P.M. 1989. Die Schlangen von Venezuela. Armitano Editores C.A., Caracas, 1-381
Morato, S.A.A.; Calixto, P.O.; Mendes, L.R.; Gomes, R.; Galatti, U.; Trein, F.L.; Oliveira, F.S.; Ferreira, G.N. 2014. Guia fotográfico de identificação da herpetofauna da Floresta Nacional de Saracá-Taquera, Estado do Pará. Curitiba: STCP Engenharia de Projetos Ltda.; Porto Trombetas: MRN – Mineração Rio do Norte S.A.; 213 p.
Nascimento F Paiva do; de Avila-Pires T C Sauer; da Cunha O Rodrigues 1987. Os repteis da area de Carajas, Para, Brasil (Squamata). 2. Boletim do Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi NOVA SERIE ZOOLOGIA 3(1) 1987: 33-65
Natera-Mumaw, Marco; Luis Felipe Esqueda-González & Manuel Castelaín-Fernández 2015. Atlas Serpientes de Venezuela Santiago de Chile, Dimacofi Negocios Avanzados S.A., 456 pp.
Pérez-Santos,C. & Moreno, A.G. 1988. Ofidios de Colombia. Museo reegionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, Monographie VI, 517 pp.
RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64
Roze J A; da Silva N J 1990. Coral snakes (Serpentes, Elapidae) from hydroelectric power plant of Samuel, Rondonia, Brazil, with description of a new species. Bull. Maryland Herp. Soc. 26 (4): 169-176
Roze, J.A. 1994. Notes on the taxonomy of venomous coral snakes (Elapidae) of South America. Bull. Maryland Herp. Soc. 30: 177-185.
Santos-Costa, Maria Cristina dos; Gleomar Fabiano Maschio, Ana Lúcia da Costa Prudente 2015. Natural history of snakes from Floresta Nacional de Caxiuanã, eastern Amazonia, Brazil Herpetology Notes 8: 69-98
Schmidt, Karl P. 1936. Preliminary account of coral snakes of South America. Zoological Series of Field Museum of Natural History 20 (19): 189-203
Schmidt, Karl P. 1953. Hemprich’s coral snake, Micrurus hemprichi. Fieldiana Zoology 34 (13): 165-170
Schmidt, Karl P. 1955. Coral snakes of the genus Micrurus in Colombia. Fieldiana Zoology 34 (34): 337-359
Schmidt, Karl P. & Walker, Warren F. 1943. Peruvian snakes from the University of Arequipa. Zoological Series of Field Museum of Zoology 24 (26): 279-296
Silva, F.M.; A.C. Menks; A.L.C. Prudente; J.C.L. Costa; A.E.M. Travassos; U. Galatti. 2011. Squamate Reptiles from municipality of Barcarena and surroundings, state of Pará, north of Brazil. Check List 7 (3): 220-226
Silva, N. Jorge 1993. The snakes from Samuel hydroelectric power plant and vicinity, Rondônia, Brazil. Herpetological Natural History 1 (1): 37-86
Starace, Fausto 1998. Guide des Serpents et Amphisbènes de Guyane. IBIS Rouge Editions, Guadeloupe, Guyane, 450 pp.
Vogt, R.C.; Ferrara, C.R.; Bernhard, R.; Carvalho, V.T.; Balensiefer, D.C.; Bonora, L.; Novelle, S.M.H. 2007. Capítulo 9. Herpetofauna. p. 127-143. In: Rapp Py-Daniel, L.; Deus, C.P.; Henriques, A.L.; Pimpão, D.M.; Ribeiro, O.M. (orgs.). Biodiversidade do Médio Madeira: Bases científicas para propostas de conservação. INPA: Manaus, 244pp.
Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
Whithworth, A. & Beirne, C. 2011. Reptiles of the Yachana Reserve. Global Vision International, 130 pp

snake
https://lh5.googleusercontent.com/-JXYcP_Py4LA/Ugf08PEpDYI/AAAAAAAAHOw/TgU9s14lYG8/s800/IMG_8400.jpg

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Snake Species: Bolivian Coral Snake

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Snake Species: Bolivian Coral Snake
Micrurus frontifasciatus

WERNER 1927

snake
http://media.eol.org/content/2011/10/14/03/83687_580_360.jpg

Higher Taxa Elapidae, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)

Subspecies Micrurus lemniscatus lemniscatus (LINNAEUS 1758)
Micrurus lemniscatus carvalhoi ROZE 1967
Micrurus lemniscatus diutius BURGER 1955
Micrurus lemniscatus frontifasciatus (WERNER 1927)
Micrurus lemniscatus helleri SCHMIDT & SCHMIDT 1925

Common Names South American Coral Snake

Synonym Coluber lemniscatus LINNAEUS 1758: 224
Elaps lemniscatus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 1217
Elaps lemniscatus — BOULENGER 1886: 438
Elaps lemniscatus — GARMAN 1887: 285
Micrurus lemniscatus — BEEBE 1919: 216
Micrurus lemniscatus — BEEBE 1946: 46
Micrurus lemniscatus — KORNACKER 1999: 155
Micrurus lemniscatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 448

Micrurus lemniscatus lemniscatus (LINNAEUS 1758)
Coluber lemniscatus LINNAEUS 1758: 224
Elaps heterochilus BOULENGER 1896
Elaps gravenhorstii BOULENGER 1896
Micrurus lemniscatus lemniscatus — BURGER 1955: 40
Micrurus lemniscatus lemniscatus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 212
Micrurus lemniscatus lemniscatus — GASC & RODRIGUES 1980
Micrurus lemniscatus lemniscatus — WELCH 1994: 85
Micrurus lemniscatus lemniscatus — STARACE 1998: 358
Micrurus lemniscatus lemniscatus — BARRIO-AMOROS et al. 2003

Micrurus lemniscatus carvalhoi ROZE 1967
Micrurus lemniscatus carvalhoi ROZE 1967: 33
Micrurus lemniscatus carvalhoi — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 212
Micrurus lemniscatus carvalhoi — WELCH 1994: 85
Micrurus lemniscatus carvalhoi — BARRIO-AMOROS et al. 2003
Micrurus lemniscatus carvalhoi — FROTA et al. 2005
Micrurus lemniscatus carvalhoi — PIRES et al. 2014
Micrurus carvalhoi — WALLACH et al. 2014: 446

Micrurus lemniscatus diutius BURGER 1955
Micrurus lemniscatus diutius — GASC & RODRIGUES 1980
Micrurus lemniscatus diutius — WELCH 1994: 85
Micrurus lemniscatus diutus [sic] — STARACE 1998: 361
Micrurus lemniscatus diutius — GORZULA & SEÑARIS 1999
Micrurus lemniscatus diutius — BARRIO-AMOROS et al. 2003
Micrurus lemniscatus diutius — FROTA et al. 2005
Micrurus lemniscatus diutius — FEITOSA et al. 2007

Micrurus lemniscatus frontifasciatus (WERNER 1927)
Elaps frontifasciatus WERNER 1927: 250
Micrurus lemniscatus frontifasciatus — ROZE 1967: 34
Micrurus lemniscatus frontifasciatus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970
Micrurus frontifasciatus — WELCH 1994: 83
Micrurus frontifasciatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 446

Micrurus lemniscatus helleri SCHMIDT & SCHMIDT 1925
Micrurus helleri SCHMIDT & SCHMIDT 1925: 129
Micrurus lemniscatus helleri — ROZE 1967: 35
Micrurus lemniscatus helleri — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 212
Micrurus lemniscatus helleri — DUELLMAN 1978: 261
Micrurus lemniscatus helleri — FUGLER & WALLS 1978
Micrurus lemniscatus helleri — WELCH 1994: 85
helleri
Micrurus lemniscatus helleri — BARRIO-AMOROS et al. 2003
Micrurus lemniscatus helleri — WHITHWORTH & BEIRNE 2011

Distribution N Bolivia, Brazil (Amazonas, Goias, Rio Grande do Sul [HR 32: 60], Acre, Rio de Janeiro), Colombia, E Ecuador,
French Guiana, Guyana, Surinam, E Peru, Argentina (HR 27: 34), Paraguay (fide Paul Smith, pers. comm., 27 Apr 2014),
Trinidad, Venezuela

lemniscatus: Brazil (Amapa, Para), N Guianas

carvalhoi: NE/C Brazil (Bahia, Alagoas, DF, Goiás, Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Paraíba, Paraná, Pernambuco, São Paulo, Tocantins), Argentina (Corrientes), Paraguay (Amambay, Caaguazú)

diutius: Trinidad, E Venezuela (incl. Carabobo), C Guianas

frontifasciatus: Bolivia, Brazil (Pará: [HR 31: 255]); Type locality: “Bolivia”

helleri: Amazon region of N Brazil, S Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia

Type locality: “Asia” (fide LINNAEUS 1758; in error); Schmidt and Walker (1943) restricted the type locality to Belem. Para, Brazil; however, Roze (1967) thought that the specimen most likely came from the northern Guianas.

Reproduction oviparous.

Types Syntypes: NRM (also given as RMS)
Lectotype: NRS L-93, designated by Roze, 1989.
Holotype: NHMW = NMW 18298 [frontifasciatus]
Holotype: FMNH 5577, male, “Pozuzo, Huanuco. Peru” [helleri]
Holotype: FMNH 34472, male, “Tunapuna, Trinidad” [diutius]
Holotype: USNM 76341, male, “Catanduva, Sao Paulo, Brazil”; ZMB 2727 seems to be the iconotype from Seba 1734 [carvalhoi]

Synonymy after PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970 who list Micrurus lemniscatus multicinctus AMARAL 1944 as synonym of Micrurus frontalis altirostris. Campbell & Lamar 2004 list M. (l.) frontifasciatus as a synonym of Micrurus lemniscatus (without reference or justification).

Venomous!

Max total length: 115 cm.

Diagnosis. (1) Dorsal pattern of white, red, and black triads; (2) hemipenis and tail relatively short; (3) two supralabials entering orbit; (4) mental usually

separated from chinshields by medial contact of first pair of infralabials; (5) anal scale usually divided; (6) first triad complete; (7) 2-6 red vertebrals separating

first triad from parietals; (8) dorsal surface of head black with white band crossing snout; margins of scales within white band not edged in black; parietals partly red; (9) extent of black pigment in red and white rings variable; (10) white rings longest ventrally, never constricted or broken ventrally by black rings; (11) mental and some anterior infralabials entirely black (i.e., band across snout broken by

entirely black infralabials) or red; (12) 9-15 triads on the body and 1-1.67 triads on the tail in Bolivian specimens (7-17 and 0.67-2 across the species range, Campbell and Lamar, 1989); (13) white rings always smaller than exterior black rings in Bolivian specimens and elsewhere (Campbell and Lamar, 1989; Harvey et al. 2003).

Distribution: Micrurus lemniscatus frontifasciatus does not occur in Bolivia

Adult Length: 0.50 m

General Shape
Medium in length, slender bodied coral snake, with a very short thick set tail. Can grow to a maximum of about 1.05 metres. Head is small, rounded and barely distinct from neck. Eyes are moderately small in size with round pupils. Dorsal scales are smooth and glossy without apical pits. Dorsal scale count 15 – 15 – 15.

Habitat
Lower montane wet forest and / or lower montane dry forest.

Prey
Probably feeds on snakes and lizards. Few recorded specimens.

References
Barrio Amorós, César Luis and Daniel Calcaño 2003. First record of Micrurus lemniscatus (Linnaeus, 1758) from western Venezuela with comments on coral snakes from the eastern Andean piedmont (Squamata: Serpentes: Elapidae). Herpetozoa 16 (1/2):73-78
Bauer, Aaron M. & Rainer Günther 2014. Die Amphibien und Reptilien aus der von Borcke-Sammlung des Berliner Museums für Naturkunde: eine Fundgrube für verschollen geglaubtes Seba-Material. Sekretär 14 (1): 3-33
Bauer, Aaron M. and Rainer Günther 2013. Origin and identity of the von Borcke collection of amphibians and reptiles in the Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin: A cache of Seba specimens?. Zoosystematics and Evolution 89 (1): 167–185
Beebe, William 1919. Higher vertebrates of British Guiana, with special reference to the fauna of Bartica District. Zoologica 2 (7): 205-238
Beebe, William 1946. Field notes on the snakes of Kartabo, British Guiana, and Caripito, Venezuela. Zoologica 31: 11-52
BERNARDE, P.S., ALBUQUERQUE, S., BARROS, T.O. & TURCI, L.C.B. 2012. Serpentes do Estado de Rondônia, Brasil. Biota Neotrop. 12(3): 1-29
BERNARDE, Paulo Sérgio; Jáson de Oliveira GOMES 2012. Serpentes peçonhentas e ofidismo em Cruzeiro do Sul, Alto Juruá, Estado do Acre, Brasil. Acta Amazonica 42 (1): 65 – 72
Bernarde, Paulo Sérgio;, Reginaldo Assêncio Machado & Luiz Carlos Batista Turci 2011. Herpetofauna da área do Igarapé Esperança na Reserva Extrativista Riozinho da Liberdade, Acre – Brasil. Biota Neotrop. 11 (3): 117-144
Boos, H.E.A. 2001. The snakes of Trinidad and Tobago. Texas A&M University Press, 270 pp.
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Burger, W.L. 1955. A new subspecies of the coral snake Micrurus lemniscatus from Vénézuela, British Guiana and Trinidad, and a key for the identification of associated species of coral snakes. Bol. Mus. Cienc. Nat. Caracas 1: 35-40
Campbell, J.A. & Lamar, W.W. 1989. The Venomous Reptiles of Latin America. Comstock Publishing/Cornell University Press, Ithaca
CATENAZZI, A., LEHR, E. & VON MAY, R. 2013. The amphibians and reptiles of Manu National Park and its buffer zone, Amazon basin and eastern slopes of the Andes, Peru. Biota Neotrop. 13(4): 269-283
Claessen, H. 2005. De slangen van de Guyana’s, deel IX. Lacerta 63 (6): 228-241
Cole, Charles J.; Carol R. Townsend, Robert P. Reynolds, Ross D. MacCulloch, and Amy Lathrop 2013. Amphibians and reptiles of Guyana, South America: illustrated keys, annotated species accounts, and a biogeographic synopsis. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 125 (4): 317-578; plates: 580-620
da Silva, Nelson Jorge, Jr;da Silva, Dionei Jos_ 1996. Geographic Distribution. Micrurus lemniscatus. Herpetological Review 27 (1): 34
DI-BERNARDO, MARCOS; MARCIO BORGES-MARTINS & NELSON JORGE DA SILVA, JR. 2007. A new species of coralsnake (Micrurus: Elapidae) from southern Brazil. Zootaxa 1447: 1–26
Duellman, W. E. 1978. The biology of an equatorial herpetofauna in Amazonian Ecuador. Misc. Publ. Univ. Kans. Mus. Nat. Hist. 65: 1-352
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Duellman, W.E., & Salas, A.W. 1991. Annotated checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Cuzco Amazonico, Peru. Occas. Papers Mus. of Natur. Hist., Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence (143): 13 pp.
Duméril, A. M. C., BIBRON, G. & DUMÉRIL, A. H. A., 1854. Erpétologie générale ou histoire naturelle complète des reptiles. Tome septième. Deuxième partie, comprenant l’histoire des serpents venimeux. Paris, Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret: i-xii + 781-1536
Feitosa, Darlan T., Paulo P. Passos and Ana Lúcia Prudente. 2007. Taxonomic status and geographic variation of the slender coralsnake Micrurus filiformis (Günther, 1859) (Serpentes, Elapidae). South American J. Herp. 2 (3): 149-156
Fraga R de, Stow AJ, Magnusson WE, Lima AP 2014. The Costs of Evaluating Species Densities and Composition of Snakes to Assess Development Impacts in Amazonia. PLoS ONE 9(8): e105453. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0105453
Franca, F.G.R.; Daniel O. Mesquita, Cristiano C. Nogueira, and
Alexandre F. B. Araújo 2008. Phylogeny and Ecology Determine Morphological Structure in a Snake Assemblage in the Central Brazilian Cerrado. Copeia 2008 (1): 23-38
Frota, J.G. da; Pedroso dos Santos-Jr, Alfredo; Menezes-Chalkidis, H. de & Guimarães Guedes, A. 2005. AS SERPENTES DA REGIÃO DO BAIXO RIO AMAZONAS, OESTE DO ESTADO DO PARÁ, BRASIL (SQUAMATA). Biociências 13 (2): 211-220
Fugler, Charles M. and A. Brad Walls. 1978. Snakes of the Upano Valley of Amazonian Ecuador. Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science 53 (3): 81-87
Garman, S. 1887. On West Indian reptiles in the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Cambridge, Mass. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 24: 278-286.
Gasc & Rodrigues 1980. Liste preliminaire des Serpents de la Guyane francaise. Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat. Paris 2 (4): 559-598
Godoy Pires, Matheus; Nelson Jorge da Silva Jr., Darlan Tavares Feitosa, ANA LÚCIA DA COSTA PRUDENTE, GENTIL ALVES PEREIRA FILHO & Hussam ZAHER 2014. A new species of triadal coral snake of the genus Micrurus Wagler, 1824 (Serpentes: Elapidae) from northeastern Brazil . Zootaxa 3811 (4): 569–584
Gorzula, Stefan & Senaris, J. Celsa 1999. In: Contribution to the herpetofauna of the Venezuelan Guayana. I: a data base. Scientia Guaianae, Caracas, No. 8 [1998], 269+ pp.; ISBN 980-6020-48-0
Harvey M. B., J. Aparicio E, and L. Gonzalez A. 2003. Revision of the venomous snakes of Bolivia: Part 1. The coralsnakes (Elapidae: Micrurus). Annals of the Carnegie Museum 72: 1-52
KOK, P. J. R., ROZE, J. A., LENGLET, G. L., SAMBHU, H. & ARJOON, D. 2003. Micrurus isozonus (Cope, 1860) (Serpentes, Elapidae): an addition to the herpetofauna of Guyana, with comments on other species of coral snakes from Guyana. Bulletin de l’Institut Royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique, Biologie, 73 : 75-82
Kornacker,P.M. 1999. Checklist and key to the snakes of Venezuela. PaKo-Verlag, Rheinbach, Germany, 270 pp.
Lancini,A.R. & Kornacker,P.M. 1989. Die Schlangen von Venezuela. Armitano Editores C.A., Caracas, 1-381
Lehr, E. 2002. Amphibien und Reptilien in Peru. Natur und Tier-Verlag (Münster), 208 pp.
Linares, Antônio Meira and Paula Cabral Eterovick 2013. Herpetofaunal Surveys Support Successful Reconciliation Ecology in Secondary and Human-Modified Habitats at the Inhotim Institute, Southeastern Brazil. Herpetologica 69 (2): 237-256.
Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii, Holmiæ. 10th Edition: 824 pp.
Marques, Otavio A. V.; Lígia Pizzatto, and Selma M. Almeida Santos 2013. Reproductive Strategies of New World Coral Snakes, Genus Micrurus. Herpetologica 69 (1): 58-66.
Miranda, Daniele Bazzo; Nathocley Mendes Venâncio, Saymon de Albuquerque 2014. Rapid survey of the herpetofauna in an area of forest management in eastern Acre, Brazil. Check List 10 (4): 893-899
Morato, S.A.A.; Calixto, P.O.; Mendes, L.R.; Gomes, R.; Galatti, U.; Trein, F.L.; Oliveira, F.S.; Ferreira, G.N. 2014. Guia fotográfico de identificação da herpetofauna da Floresta Nacional de Saracá-Taquera, Estado do Pará. Curitiba: STCP Engenharia de Projetos Ltda.; Porto Trombetas: MRN – Mineração Rio do Norte S.A.; 213 p.
Natera-Mumaw, M. et al. 2006. Distribution extension and new state record for Micrurus lemniscatus diutius BURGER 1955 (Reptilia: Elapidae) in Venezuela. Herpetotropicos 3 (1): 59
Natera-Mumaw, Marco; Luis Felipe Esqueda-González & Manuel Castelaín-Fernández 2015. Atlas Serpientes de Venezuela Santiago de Chile, Dimacofi Negocios Avanzados S.A., 456 pp.
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Pérez-Santos,C. & Moreno, A.G. 1988. Ofidios de Colombia. Museo reegionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, Monographie VI, 517 pp.
Peters , J. A. 1960. The snakes of Ecuador; check list and key. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 122: 489-541
RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64
ROCHA, CARLOS FREDERICO D.; HELENA G.BERGALLO, JOSÉ P. POMBAL JR., LENA GEISE, MONIQUE VAN SLUYS, RONALDO FERNANDES, ULISSES CARAMASCHI 2004. FAUNA DE ANFÍBIOS, RÉPTEIS E MAMÍFEROS DO ESTADO DO RIO DE JANEIRO, SUDESTE DO BRASIL Publ. Avul. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro (104): 3-23
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Roze J A 1989. New species and subspecies of coral snakes, genus Micrurus (Elapidae), with notes on type specimens of several species. American Museum Novitates (2932) : 1-15
Roze, Jánis A 1967. A checklist of the New World venomous Coral Snakes (Elapidae), with descriptions of new forms. American Museum Novitates (2287): 1-60
Santos-Costa, Maria Cristina dos; Gleomar Fabiano Maschio, Ana Lúcia da Costa Prudente 2015. Natural history of snakes from Floresta Nacional de Caxiuanã, eastern Amazonia, Brazil Herpetology Notes 8: 69-98
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Snake Species: Mesopotamian Coral snake

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Snake Species: Mesopotamian Coral snake
Micrurus frontalis mesopotamicus

COPE 1862

snake
By Paul V.F. Barradas – http://www.flickr.com/photos/pbarradas/4448856889/, CC BY 2.0, Link

Higher Taxa Elapidae, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)

Synonym Elaps baliocoryphus COPE 1862: 346
Micrurus frontalis mesopotamicus BARRIO & MIRANDA 1967
Micrurus frontalis baliocoryphus — HOGE & ROMANO 1979
Micrurus frontalis mesopotamicus – CEI 1993
Micrurus frontalis baliocoryphus — WELCH 1994: 83
Micrurus frontalis baliocoryphus — ROZE 1994
Micrurus baliocoryphus — DA SILVA & SITES 1999: 162
Micrurus baliocoryphus — CAMPBELL & LAMAR 2004: 209
Micrurus baliocoryphus — DI BERNARDO et al. 2007
Micrurus baliocoryphus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 442

Distribution Argentina (Entre Rios, Correintes, SW Misiones), Paraguay

Type locality: Buenos Aires, Argentina. Corrected to Villa Federal, Entre Ríos, Argentina (type locality of M. frontalis mesopotamicus) by Roze (1983).

Reproduction oviparous.

Types Holotype: ANSP 6842

Venomous!

Distribution: apparently not known from Brazil (Campbell & Lamar 2004, Da Silva & Sites, 1999).

Adult Length: 0.45 m

General Shape
Medium in length, slender bodied coral snake with a very short tail. Can grow to a maximum of about 1.45 metres. Head is small, rounded and barely distinct from neck. Eyes are moderately small in size with round pupils. Dorsal scales are smooth and glossy without apical pits. Supra-anal keels are absent in males. Dorsal scale count 15 – 15 – 15.

Habitat
Lower montane wet forest, topical and subtropical deciduous forest, savanna, pasture and farmland, sandy or rocky areas and temperate forest.

Prey
Feeds mainly on lizards ( especially limbless lizards ) and snakes ( especially blind snakes ).

This species is found in Argentina, occurring between the Río Paraná and Río Uruguay, in the Provinces of Entre Ríos, Corrientes, and southern Misiones (Campbell and Lamar 2004). It is cited for Paraguay in Motte et al. (2009). In Argentina it has an elevational range from near sea level to about 200 m (Campbell and Lamar 2004).

This is a leaf litter species found mostly in deciduous forest and open areas of humid Chaco habitats (Campbell and Lamar 2004, Giraudo et al. 2012), Espinal and savannas (Giraudo et al. 2012).

Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Justification:
Listed as Least Concern because it is widespread and has no known major threats.

Population: It is common, but there is no information on the population trends available for this species.

Major Threat(s): It is hunted and persecuted by people, but on a range-wide scale no major threats are known.

References
Cei, J. M. 1993. Reptiles del noroeste, nordeste y este de la Argentina. Museo Regionale Sci. Naturale Torino, Monografie 14: 1-949
Cope, E.D. 1860. Catalogue of the venomous serpents in the Museum of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, with notes on the families, genera and species. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1859: 332-347
Cope, E.D. 1862. Catalogues of the reptiles obtained during the explorations of the Parana Paraguay, Vermejo and Uruguay rivers, by Capt. Thos. J. Page, U.S.N.; and of those procured by Lieut. N. Michier, U. S. Top. Eng., Commander of the expedition conducting the su Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1862: 346-359.
Da SILVA, N. J. JR. & J. W. JR. SITES 1999. Revision of the Micrurus frontalis complex (Serpentes: Elapidae). Herpetological Monographs 13: 142-194
DI-BERNARDO, MARCOS; MARCIO BORGES-MARTINS & NELSON JORGE DA SILVA, JR. 2007. A new species of coralsnake (Micrurus: Elapidae) from southern Brazil. Zootaxa 1447: 1–26
Hoge, A.R., & Romano-Hoge, S.A.R.W.L. 1979. Sinopse das serpentes peconhentas do Brasil (2.ed.). Mem. Inst. Butantan. 42/43: 373-496.
Roze, J.A. 1994. Notes on the taxonomy of venomous coral snakes (Elapidae) of South America. Bull. Maryland Herp. Soc. 30: 177-185.
Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
Welch, K. R. G. 1994. Snakes of the World. A Checklist. I. Venomous snakes. KCM Books, Somerset, England.

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Snake Species: Brazilian Coral Snake

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Snake Species: Brazilian Coral Snake
Micrurus frontalis brasiliensis

ROZE 1967

snake 1
Snakes are beneficial to man

Higher Taxa Elapidae, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)

Synonym Micrurus frontalis brasiliensis ROZE 1967
Micrurus frontalis brasiliensis — ROZE 1994
Micrurus frontalis brasiliensis — ROZE 1996: 174
Micrurus brasiliensis — DA SILVA & SITES 1999: 165
Micrurus brasiliensis — VITT et al. 2002
Micrurus brasiliensis — WALLACH et al. 2014: 443

Distribution Brazil (Bahia, Minas Gerais, Goias, Maranhão, Tocantins)

Type locality: Barreiras, Bahia, Brazil

Reproduction oviparous.

Types Holotype: UMMZ 108880, a male

Venomous!

References
Da SILVA, N. J. JR. & J. W. JR. SITES 1999. Revision of the Micrurus frontalis complex (Serpentes: Elapidae). Herpetological Monographs 13: 142-194
Freitas, Marco Antonio de; Guarino R. Colli, Omar Machado Entiauspe-Neto, Luiz Trinchão, Daniel Araújo, Tiago de Oliveira Lima, Daniella Pereira Fagundes de França, Renato Gaiga, Pedro Dias 2016. Snakes of Cerrado localities in western Bahia, Brazil. Check List 12 (3): 1896
Godoy Pires, Matheus; Nelson Jorge da Silva Jr., Darlan Tavares Feitosa, ANA LÚCIA DA COSTA PRUDENTE, GENTIL ALVES PEREIRA FILHO & Hussam ZAHER 2014. A new species of triadal coral snake of the genus Micrurus Wagler, 1824 (Serpentes: Elapidae) from northeastern Brazil . Zootaxa 3811 (4): 569–584
Hamdan, B. & R. M. Lira-da-Silva 2012. The snakes of Bahia State, northeastern Brazil: species richness, composition and biogeographical notes. Salamandra 48 (1): 31-50
Roze, J.A. 1994. Notes on the taxonomy of venomous coral snakes (Elapidae) of South America. Bull. Maryland Herp. Soc. 30: 177-185.
Roze, Jánis A 1967. A checklist of the New World venomous Coral Snakes (Elapidae), with descriptions of new forms. American Museum Novitates (2287): 1-60
Silveira, Adriano Lima. 2014. Geographic Distribution: Micrurus brasiliensis. Herpetological Review 45 (1): 95
Vitt, L. J.; Caldwell, J. P.; Colli, G. R.; Garda, A. A.; Mesquita, D. O.; França, F. G. R. e Balbino, S. F. 2002. Um guia fotográfico dos répteis e anfíbios da região do Jalapão no Cerrado brasileiro. Norman, Oklahoma: Special Publications in Herpetology. San Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History
Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.

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